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|Argus Model 812 Super Eight (1966-1967) (Large) Specifications at filmkorn.org and super8wiki.com. Super eight silent camera with 3X zoom lens, 10-30mm, f1.8, close focus 5 feet, single lens reflex viewfinder, automatic and manual exposure control - not TTL, single filming speed 18 frames per second. Takes 4 AA batteries for the motor and one 1.35 volt mercury battery for the light meter. The mercury battery is no longer available. Inside the camera it states: "Argus Incorporated, Chicago, Illinois, Made in Japan." I assume it was made by a Japanese manufacturer and sold by Argus with the Argus name. For example, Cosina made the Argus 735 below. I could not find the actual manufacturer for the Argus 812, however. The manual is available at archive.org. I assume I got my camera at a garage sale many years ago. The battery compartment has some corrosion. I have not tried to clean it up yet.|
|Argus Cosina 735 (1973-1974) (Large, With Handle) Compact, Super 8 cartridge, silent movie camera. Argus was an American camera manufacturer that started in 1936 as a subsidiary of International Radio Corporation. It made several decent cameras, including the Argus C3, one of the best selling cameras of all time with a production run of nearly 30 years. Argus cameras were made in Ann Arbor, Michigan. Argus was acquired in 1959 by Sylvania and sold off in 1969 by which time it no longer produced cameras. (Wikipedia - Argus Camera Company. Some cameras, made by other manufacturers, continued to be sold under the Argus name, however. This camera is an example. It was made in Japan by Cosina. Cosina is a Japanese company that started in 1959 making lenses and later cameras. It started under the name Nikoh and then in 1973 changed its name to Cosina. Cosina has made some cameras under its own name. It is well known, however, for selling its cameras under other brand names. For example, in the 1970s it made several Vivitar single lens reflex cameras such as the Vivitar XC-3. It also has made some camera models for well known companies like Canon, Nikon, Yashica, Olympus, and Konica. (Wikipedia - Cosina.) According to the Super 8 Database this camera was made in 1973-1974 just when the Cosina name was beginning to be used. Schneider, "Pocket Super-8s: Pocket Movie Cameras You Won't Leave At Home," Popular Electronics, pages 130-133 (December 1973) discusses the Argus Cosina 735 and several other "pocket" sized movie cameras. The price is listed as $239.95. Pretty reasonable, until you consider that $239.95 in 1973 has the same buying power as $1,169.11 in 2009. The Argus Cosina 735 with an Argus DualMaster projector were part of a "Price is Right" game aired on November 21, 1972 with a total price of $409.60 according to The Price Is Right, Episode 0122D. By the way, a Chevy Vega car on the same episode was $2,438. Pretty amazing the trivia you can find on the Internet, isn't it? The Argus Cosina 735 is quite compact with dimensions of 2" x 3-3/4" x 5" 1/4 and a weight of 2 lbs 2 oz according to the Super 8 Database. It has a non-interchangeable f8-40mm, f1.8 lens. It has single lens reflex viewing and focusing. Focusing is manual. You can zoom manually or electronically. It has speeds of 18 fps (normal), 32 fps (slow motion) and single frame. Exposure metering is through the lens and is automatic or manual. It takes four 1.5 volt AA batteries. Mine appears to be in excellent cosmetic and working condition. I purchased it for about $5 at a garage/estate sale in Spring Valley, CA (near Casa de Oro) on December 26, 2009.|
|Auricon Model CM-72A (Circa 1949) Auricon Cine-Voice 16mm Sound-On-Film Camera, Serial No. E6-83,444, 15 Watts, 100 feet film capacity, made in USA by Bach Auricon, Inc., Hollywood 38, California. Auricon made early 16mm sound movie cameras that were used frequently in documentaries and in early television. Auricon is described at the foreign language site cinepresa da collezione (Rough Translation from Yahoo). Date is from the above site and CINEMATOGRAPHICA. A photo is at the following Asian language site, cine vis 8-16. The October 2003 Popular Photography online magazine has a great advertisement for the Model CM-72A. It lists the price in 1953 as $695 with a single lens mount, lens and portable power pack not included. Adjusted for inflation this equals over $5,000 in today's dollars! It's big weighing in at over 10 pounds and about 10" high, 5.5" wide, and 9" deep, without any lens. My Auricon was purchased at a La Mesa, CA garage sale for about $13 on 8-5-06. It looks to be in good condition but is untested. It did not come with a lens. Images: Large, Interior, Label.|
|Auricon Model CM-72A (Circa 1954) Seeing my entry above, the owner of this camera and equipment generously donated it to me in November 2011. The 1954 date is from an included manual giving a publication date of October 1954. The camera serial number is D6-31641. The outfit includes the camera, a "Som Berthiot Paris Pan Cinor" - 20-60mm f2.8 zoom lens, an Auricon Sound-on-Film Recording Amplifier, a microphone, various other pieces of equipment and a nice case to fit it all in. I have not tried to use it although it looks to be in good condition. The lens is free of scratches but may have some internal haze on the edges. There is a photo of what looks to be the same lens model at owyheesound.com/auricon.html. The camera does not have reflex viewing. There is a viewfinder attached to the lens. The frame of this viewfinder adjusts as you zoom in or out. It looks like it also has some sort of focusing scale. I don't know if this actually indicates the focus, however. Apparently at the time the distance to the subject was often actually measured with a measuring tape. The lens focusing ring was then turned to that distance. The camera has a turret for three lenses although it would be difficult to add other lenses with this large zoom lens. The zoom lens also tends to negate the need for multiple lenses on the turret.|
|Auricon cameras were important industrial and news gathering cameras from the 1950s into the 1970s. The Early Days of News Gathering and Reporting describes news gathering and the use of Auricon cameras in the 1950s and 1960s. Sound-on-film news gathering cameras were eventually taken over by professional video cameras. The Auricon cameras were prized because they were relatively portable and recorded sound directly on the film. As designed the Auricon CM-72A could only take 100 feet of film. As indicated in an ad at www.city-net.com that only provided 2 minutes and 45 seconds of filming. The base price is listed as $795 or over $6,800 in 2012 dollars. The next model up, the Auricon Pro-600, was over twice as much with a base price of $1,871. Many Auricon CM-72A cameras were modified to accept larger film magazines. For example, the Wikipedia article on Auricon shows a modified Auricon CM-72A with a 400 foot capacity Mitchell magazine. That camera also has a zoom lens. The camera is connected to the Auricon Sound-on-Film Recording Amplifier. Some Auricon cameras were also used to photograph television monitors since that was the only way to record a live television program until videotape was invented in 1956. The process was called Kinescope. (Wikipedia - Kinescope.) Bach Auricon would replace the shutters in these cameras to synchronize with the scanning rate of the television.|
|Included with my camera outfit is a very helpful pamphlet How to Use Your "Cine-Voice" 16mm Sound-on-Film Recording Camera by the Auricon Division of Brendt-Bach, Incorporated and dated Oct. 1954. The camera is powered by a battery portable power supply or an AC outlet. The camera is hooked up to the output jack of the amplifier. The microphone goes into an input jack in the amplifier. You can also put a dual phono-turntable into the other input jack of the amplifier. The sound pictures are made on regular 16mm film except the film has spockets only on one side. The sound track is recorded on the non-perforated edge of this single-perforated film. The shutter is 1/50 second. Changing exposure therefore depended entirely on the aperture. The camera speed is 24 frames per second, standard for 16mm sound-on-film. "The sound is put on the film by a hair-line of light, which comes from the Galvanometer (Modulator Unit) and is focused on the film as it passes around the sprockets." (Page 6) "The sound currents from the Amplifier cause the hair-line of light to increase and decrease in length. As the film moves past the line of light, a track is recorded on the film which varies in width (or area) and is known as a Variable-Area-Sound-Track." (Page 6.) Therefore, essentially the sound is being translated into a light signal that is recorded on the photographic film. I assume the sound projector changes this light signal back into sound. The equipment was not very portable in today's terms. The camera is not designed to be shoulder mounted. You really need it on a tripod. Further, the camera needs to be hooked up to the amplifier and battery pack. YouTube has an interesting video of Walter Bach of Berndt-Bach, Inc., the makers of Auricon, giving a demonstration of the larger model Auricon Pro 1200. The Auricon Cinevoice also has excellent information.|
|My equipment had been used in the owner's family's business, the National Brush Company, in Aurora, Illinois. Included with the camera are two short (100 feet) black and white (Kodak Plus-X Reversal film) films. One is for the Packing Department, the other for the "Filling" (?) Department. Both are dated 1-10-73. I have not put the rolls through a projector although the first part of "filling" department film may be a woman putting something in a box. The first part of the Packing Department film appears to be a woman doing something with an industrial piece of equipment. There are also two unprocessed Kodak Plus-X Reversal film rolls. One looks like it has not been used. The other might have been exposed but not processed. The ASA (ISO) rating for both is just 50 for daylight and 40 for tungsten. Curiously, all of these films have sprocket holes on both sides. Perhaps these particular films are silent. I have a 1950s Bell & Howell sound projector. I may try the films out on that projector. The films likely are industrial films for the business perhaps demonstrating particular processes for employees.|
|Bauer C2-A Super, (Large Image) Super 8 purchased around March 2007 for about $1 at a Fletcher Hills (El Cajon, CA) garage sale. In good operating and cosmetic condition. I don't know how to check the meter. The cross-hairs in the viewfinder are not straight. Battery compartment door tends to fall out. Motor runs. Takes 4AA batteries. 8X power zoom, 7.5 to 60mm, f1.8 lens. Made in Germany. Similar Bauer C-2 with 8-40mm Schneider Variogon zoom lens was $259.95 in 1967 Leedar Photographic Catalog. That equals about $1,580 adjusted for inflation to 2007! One sold on eBay on 4-8-07, the day I am writing this, for $26 with $10 shipping. It came with a case and looked to be in somewhat better condition.|
|Bell & Howell 8mm Magazine Camera 172, (circa 1947) (Large Image) 8mm magazine silent movie camera. Has two lens turret. You lift up the post between the two lenses and rotate it to change lenses. There are two viewing lenses which also rotate and match their respective taking lenses. There is a tripod socket in the bottom. The strap screws into this. Speeds of 16, 24, 32, 48 and 64. Lenses are removable from their screw mounts. The two lenses on the camera as pictured are a Bell & Howell Super Comet .5 inch f1.9 and an Elgeet 38mm f3.3 Cine Tel with a dent on the rim. It also came with an Elgeet 6.5mm f2.5 wide angle lens. That lens appears to be a fixed focus. Mechanical wind. Several filters and holders are included along with a nice Perrin (California) leather case and a very well made Norwood Director Selenium incident meter that seems to work. Everything is made in the USA. The camera winds and runs wells. The lenses are clear. The cosmetic condition of everything is good except for the rim dent on the one lens and a dent in the semi-sphere of meter. Purchased at a La Jolla garage sale on 3-15-08 for $20. A discussion at historiccamera.com indicates the Model 172 was made in about 1947 and is fairly common with a value of $10 or less. It is also described at http://www.movie-camera.it/belle.html with the same 1947 date. There is an ad on eBay for the successor Model 172A dated 1954. The Model 172-A with one lens in the turret cost $199.95 in the 1956 Sears Camera Catalog, equal to an astonishing $1,556 in 2008 dollars!|
|Bell & Howell Sportster, (circa 1947-1950) (Other Side) 8mm Double Run. Made in England. Lens: Mytal Ansstigmat, 0.5 inch focal length, f2.5 to f16, made by Taylor, Taylor & Hobson Ltd. England, Patents Brittan 422248, 438149, U.S. 2017823. Lens is removed by pressing together the two knobs to the left of the lens. The shutter release button is just below these knobs. The viewfinder in front has two little frames which can be placed in front of the viewfinder to frame the scene for more telephoto lenses. Speeds of 16, 32, 48, and 64. Spring loaded motor. On the right side (while holding it to photograph a scene) of the camera are the winding knob, film speed setting and feet of film used. On the left side is the button to open the film compartment and a dial to set the exposure with the "Weston Film Speed", the frames per second, and apertures based how sunny or cloudy it is, and the amount of shading. Has a removable strap, not shown, which screws into the tripod socket. With strap removed there is a base so that the camera can sit on a flat surface. The camera is relatively small with dimensions of only about 5" high, 2" wide and 3" deep without lens. The lens adds about .875" more. The camera is quite hefty for its size with solid metal construction. The best date seems to be about 1947 to 1950 based on ads from the time. A charming blog entitled One Foot in Front of the Other describes the author's father purchasing a Sportster in 1947 to take pictures of a new baby. The camera was used up until about 1964 when the author, apparently the last of four children, was two years old. My guess is the majority of movie cameras and video cameras were purchased for the same reason - to take moving pictures of kids growing up. That's why I got my first video camera and why my dad got the Kodak Cine Zoom camera below. The price in a 1950 magazine ad shown at AdClassix was $99.75. Sounds like a pretty good price until you adjust it for inflation - that's about $870 in 2007 dollars. While mine looks similar to those in the 1947 and 1950 ads, the Sportster name appears to have been used from the 1930s to 1950s. Also, the ads refer to the Filmo Sportster. Mine does not refer to Filmo. A Bell & Howell "Filmo" Sportster on eBay similar to mine was made in the United States. The "Filmo" cameras may therefore be limited to those made in the United States. If you have any additional information, please e-mail me. Mine is serial no. 17921. Mine was a 2007 Christmas present from my sister who acquired it an estate/garage sale in the Bay Park area of San Diego. It is in very good cosmetic and working condition. It winds and runs well.|
|Bell & Howell Filmo 8mm "Picture Master," Design 151, Model A, Projector (circa 1943) (also known as Bell & Howell 151A projector) 8mm film projector. Date from List of Vintage Movie Cameras, Projectors, etc. (under Bell & Howell cameras (not projectors) - Model 151A 1943 8mm, about half way down page). (Photo from List of Vintage Movie Cameras, etc..) Paul's 16mm Collecting Pages has a list of 16mm Bell & Howell projectors. The design or model numbers appear to be in chronological order. If that holds true for the 8mm projectors also, 151 would fall between the 16mm model 142 produced from 1939 to 1941 and the 16mm model 156 produced from 1942 to 1945. This supports the 1943 date. Takes a DES/120V/750W ANSI bulb available from donsbulbs.com. Controls include projector on-off, lamp on-off, pilot on-off, speed slow-fast. 115 volts, 8 amps, either AC or DC. There is an AC-DC switch on the bottom. Made in U.S.A. by Bell & Howell Company Chicago with additional locations listed as Hollywood, New York, Washington D.C. and London. Lens: focal length 1 inch, f 1.6, "ELC," Made in U.S.A. Lens is clear with no scratches or mold. (Detail of lens and threading area.) Purchased at a garage sale in the Rolando area (south of University) of San Diego on 8-4-07 during the annual neighborhood garage sales for about $12.50 (purchased with some other items). In good cosmetic condition and working condition to the extent light comes on and motor runs. I have not tried it with film. Comes with wooden case with leather like covering. Includes oil bottle and oil can.|
|Bell & Howell Filmosound 185 Projector produced 1949 to 1951 according to Paul's 16mm Film Collecting Pages. It is priced at $449 in the 1949 Montgomery Ward Photographic Catalog, or $4,128 in 2008 dollars. The similar later model 202C cost $699 in the 1953 Sears Camera Catalog, about $5,300 adjusted for inflation! A photo from that site shows a large separate speaker. I only have a smaller speaker that fits into the case. Film-Tech has a Bell & Howell repair manual for Filmosound amplifiers, including the 185 (under 16mm Projectors, B&H Amplifiers models 120, etc.). It refers to a monitor speaker and a stage speaker. I must have the monitor speaker but not the stage speaker. Purchased at a garage sale on 2-3-07 for $2.50. It is in good cosmetic condition and seems to work in that the bulb lights and a lot of things run! I have just tried it for a few seconds. It even comes with its own little oil can. Paul's 16mm Film Collecting Pages indicates that 16mm film was introduced in 1923 for amateurs and was used mainly for educational, training and industrial films, and in television for distributing programs for broadcast. The advent of video tape put an end to most of these uses. Motion picture films in theaters are generally 35mm films while most amateurs by the 1950s used 8mm film. I remember fondly watching excellent 16mm films in science and social studies in school in the 1960s and 1970s. 16mm film provided good resolution projected onto a screen. Indeed, until the recent advent of video projectors, students in the 1980s and 1990s had to watch movies on small television screens instead of movie screens. My only recollection of television in school was watching either the lift off or return of a Gemini rocket in the 1960s. VCRs were yet to arrive.|
|Bell & Howell Two-Fifty-Two (Large Image) (circa 1954) Double 8 camera. 1954 date is referred to in multiple websites, although I don't know how reliable it is. (See, e.g, TMU Archives.) Looking on eBay there were a lot of Two-Fifty-Two cameras sold. Additionally, there were many similar models of the "Sun Dial" series sold during the mid to late 1950s. For example, the September 19, 1955 Life Magazine has an ad for a similar Bell & Howell Two Twenty Wilshire. I believe the main difference in the cameras is the Two-Fifty-Two has a 10mm f1.9 lens while the Two Twenty has a slower 2.5 lens. The Two Twenty in the ad sold for $49.95, or about $550 in December 2022 dollars. The price for the Two Twenty was only $34.99 in the New 1957 Montgomery Ward Camera Shop Catalog. With a 2.3 lens it was $47.99, and with a f1.9 lens it was $54.99. I think a Two Twenty with an f1.9 lens would basically be the Two-Fifty-Two. "Two Twenty" is spelled out on the camera, although the Life Magazine ad refers to the "220 Wilshire." My camera spells out Two-Fifty-Two, although there was another version that had 252 in numeral form on the camera. (Video - 1954 Bell & Howell 252.) It was called the 252 Monterey and had an f2.3 lens according to a brochure page for sale on eBay. There was also a 252 with a three lens turret. (Video - Vintage Tech - Bell & Howell Two Fifty Two.) In the 1961 Sears Camera Catalog there was a 323 model with f2.5 lens and a light meter on top for $34.99. There was also a 333 three lens turret model in the 1962 Sears Camera Catalog. While this sounds confusing, I think these Sun Dial cameras were all similar with only cosmetic changes and different lenses. The lenses look like they are removable screw mount lenses. In actuality I think what looks like a lens really serves as just a lens hood. The actual lens is inside this lens hood. It looks like it could be removed with a small spanner lens wrench. Supplementary telephoto and wide angle lenses would fit into the lens (hood). The additional lenses in the three lens turret cameras were also really supplementary lenses like in the Kodak Brownie Movie Camera Turret f/1.9 improved below. The manual for the Bell & Howell Two Twenty is at Jollinger.com (large pdf file - slow download).
The camera only has one film speed - I assume around 16 frames per second. The sun dial is composed colored buttons for bright sun, hazy, shade, and cloudy dull below a dial with a mark for Color and a mark for Black and White. If you are using color film, and it's a bright sunny day, you turn the dial until the color mark is lined up with the "bright sun" button. You can read what the actual aperture is on the top part of the dial. For color, bright sun, the aperture is f8. For black and white, bright sun, the aperture is f16. With this system you really don't need to know what a f-stop is. You just need to know whether you are using black and white film or color film, and whether the light is bright sun, hazy, shade or cloudy bright. Alternately, you can just use the top of the dial and set the f-stop based on what a light meter or some other guide says. If you look down the lens with a flashlight as your turn the dial, you can see the apertures are holes on a rotating disk. The holes for f1.9 and f2.8 are circles while all the other holes appear to be rectangles. While this is a very simple camera, it feels like it is built like a tank. It is all metal and weighs in at just over two pounds. I assume I got mine at a garage sale or estate sale many years ago. It is very good cosmetic and working condition. It winds and runs well. It came with a case. The thread on the case has completely deteriorated.
(Large Image, Other Side, Profile with Exposure Guide)
|Bell & Howell 8mm 134 TA Camera (circa 1956) Date is from The 1956 Montgomery Ward Photographic Book. It dates back further, however. Www.movie-camera.it has a similar 1939 camera and List of 3500 Vintage Cameras lists the Filmo 134 TA as being from 1951. (Mine does not use the Filmo name.) The two light meter manuals which came with my camera have date codes of 1950 and 1951. There were several 134 camera models depending on whether they came with one or multiple lenses. The manual refers to a 134-W and and a 134-V. The Bell & Howell 134-TA comes with a three-lens turret. The lenses on mine are a Wollensak 6.5mm f1.9 Wide Angle Cine Raptar, a Bell & Howell Co. Super Comat .5 inch f1.9, and a Wollensak Raptar 1.5 inch Cine Telephoto. All of them have UV filters and caps. Viewing with the 134-TA is through a non-reflex viewfinder. It is correct for all three lenses. As you rotate the turret to the lens you are using, the correct objective for the viewfinder also goes into position. In addition, the 134-TA has a reflex through the lens viewer for critical focusing. This "critical focuser" gives a magnified, upside down image. The view through mine, even after cleaning, is quite dim. The Bell & Howell 8mm 134TA was the most expensive 8mm movie camera among 22 movie cameras offered in The 1956 Montgomery Ward Photographic Book with a price tag of $309.75 with the three lenses. That equals $2,456.28 in 2009 dollars. Mine comes with the leather "Combination Case," General Electric DW-68 light meter, manuals, and assorted filters and caps. All items appear to be in good cosmetic and working condition. I purchased it for $25 on August 10, 2009 in Carlsbad, CA from an ad on Craigslist. Two days earlier I had purchased a Ciroflex twin lens reflex camera for $20 from the seller. He was selling the movie camera and a projector together for $100. I told the seller I would take the movie camera for $25 if someone just wanted the projector. The projector sold, so I got the movie camera. $25 is generally expensive for 1950s 8mm movie cameras, but this one was in good shape, came with numerous accessories, and was a higher end model, making it an excellent addition to the Movie Camera Museum.|
|Bell & Howell Model 414 Director Series Zoomatic Movie Cameras (early 1960s) (Other Images: Case, 414 Open) There were similar models with subtle differences. The model 414 did not have power zoom or a dual electric eye. The model 414P had power as well as manual zoom. The model 414PD had both the power zoom and the dual electric eye. They also came in either roll film models or magazine load models. They do not have the model numbers on the camera. My serial numbers: Model 414- AF2131, Model 414P- AP15678, Model 414PD- AS22773. The Models 414P and 414PD look identical except he 414PD says near the viewfinder "Dual Electric Eye" and has an additional small meter sensor at the bottom - center of the large meter. The power zoom controls on the 414P and 414PD are the two buttons on the top. The single electric eye model had one Selenium cell which measured overall scene illumination. The dual electric eye model had an additional selenium cell which sensed "paraxial luminance for backlight compensation." Roland J. Zavada, Dissecting the Zapruder Bell & Howell 8mm Movie Camera. If a model has magazine load, it says so directly under the Zoomatic label. The film in all models is advanced by a spring motor. The large lever on the side is used to wind the spring motor. The spring motor also apparently powers the power zoom. There are no batteries. All three cameras have a Bell & Howell Varomat Zoom Lens, f1.8. It zooms from a 9mm focal length to a 27mm focal length. The cameras have a built in Type A filter that allows use of indoor color film outdoors. The viewing was not through the lens reflex. The viewing window was coupled with the zoom lens however. In other words, you would see the zooming in or zooming out. This was more sophisticated that some other cameras of the era, such as the Kodak Cine Zoom Camera below, which simply had wide, normal and telephoto frames on the viewing window. Film speed was from ASA (ISO) 10 to 40, very slow by today's standards. The cameras used 8mm film. This was apparently 16mm film folded in two. One side would be used. The spool was then flipped over. You would then film with the other side. The film would be cut and joined when processed.
They were relatively expensive cameras geared towards advanced amateur movie makers. For example, the model 414 in the 1961 Sears Camera Catalog was $167.70, or about $1,200 in 2009 dollars. The model 414P was $189.90, or about $1,350 in 2009 dollars. The 414P camera that took magazine load film was $207.70, or almost $1,500 in 2009 dollars. Page 32 of the 1961 Sears Camera Catalog featured the Model 414 (although they do not mention the model number) and page 33 of the 1961 Sears Camera Catalog featured the Model 414P (although they again do not mention the model number).
The model 414 Director Series camera would be an interesting, although not exceptional, camera from the early 1960s. What makes it perhaps the most examined movie camera model ever, however, is that the most revealing film of the John F. Kennedy assassination on November 22, 1963 was taken with a Bell & Howell Model 414PD (roll film) Director Series camera by a Dallas dress manufacturer Abraham Zapruder. The 28 seconds of film includes the precise moment when the fatal bullet struck the president. Several sites discuss the camera including Abraham Zapruder 8MM JFK Assassination Camera, 1963, Abraham Zapruder Camera (includes owners manual), Roland J. Zavada, Dissecting the Zapruder Bell & Howell 8mm Movie Camera, The Bell & Howell Model 414PD 8mm Movie Camera Image Capture Characteristics.
My model 414 was purchased on eBay on 5-25-09 for $9.99 plus $12.95 shipping. It is in good cosmetic and operating condition as far as I can tell. It winds and runs fine. The description noted that it was similar to the model on page 309 of the 1964 Spiegel Spring and Summer Catalog selling for $199.88. My model 414P was purchased on eBay on 5-26-09 for $19.49 plus $12.84 shipping. It is also in good mechanical and cosmetic condition with a slight scruff near the Bell & Howell Zoomatic label on front. It had partially exposed film still in it. My model 414 PD magazine load was purchased on 6-2-09 for $14.99 on eBay with rather high shipping of $23.80. It is in good mechanical and cosmetic condition, although the winding lever was off when it arrived. This looks to be the same model as the Zapruder camera except mine is magazine load and his is not. Both serial numbers start with AS although my number (AS 22773) is later than his number (AS 13486). (Zapruder serial number from Practical Camera Testing with the B&H 414PD Camera The Quest for Cameras, Film and Process.)
|Bolex H-16 (circa 1948) (Large Image, Side A, Side B, Side B - Open) By reviewing my email I believe I purchased this on eBay for $65 plus $20 shipping on July 20, 2008. Now, almost fifteen years later and retired, I'm doing the write-up in December 2022! The camera was made in Switzerland. Using the serial numbers from the Bolex Collector, my camera was produced in 1948. Mine has a Trifocal Viewfinder as shown at this page on Bolex Collector with the same serial number as the camera indicating it came with the camera. My camera has the updated eyelevel focus which first came out in 1949 and was standard equipment in 1950. I don't know if this came with the camera or was purchased later. This focus tube was originally $43.41 in 1950 which is equal to about $550 in 2022 dollars. Included in the case with my camera was a February 1952 Bolex Catalog. It refers to a Deluxe and Leader model depending on the viewfinders. As indicated at Bolex Collector since these viewfinders could be purchased later it is difficult to identify early H cameras as Leader, Standard or Deluxe. Indeed, these terms were marketing labels used only in the United States. Mine seems similar to the 1949 Bolex H-16 Standard. There is a Bolex H-16 Leader Camera listed at page 38 of the 1952 Sears Camera Catalog for a price of $423.23. Adjusted for inflation, that's equal to about $4,700 in 2022 dollars! There are many YouTube videos on the Bolex H-16 models, such as the very helpful Bolex 16mm Camera - Overview where he describes different models and demonstrates his late 1950 non-reflex model. Mine is also a non-reflex model. You can focus a lens when it is in the top turret hole which is lined up the the focus tube. You then have to move that lens to the shutter position to actually film the movie with that lens. You use the other viewfinder to frame the image. My camera is in very good cosmetic condition. It winds and seems to run fine although I do not know how to fully check it out. You can focus well though the eye-level focus finder, although there is a lot of dust somewhere. It does not appear to be in the tube itself and therefore must be deeper in the camera. It has a single lens - a Yvar 75mm f2.5 which appears to be in good condition. The camera comes with a very nice hard case.|
Early Steven Spielberg Camera Models: Around the time I was writing the description for the Bolex H-16, I watched the 2022 Steven Spielberg movie, The Fabelmans, which is a semi-biography of Spielberg's early life. I think I have identified five movie cameras shown in the film, three of which are Bolex cameras.
|Bolex B-8 (1953-1958) (Large Image) Two lens turret, clock-wind, double 8mm movie camera. Dates are from Bolex Collector. My camera was made in 1954 according to the serial number/date chart at that page. My camera shows the B-8 Paillard emblem next to the viewfinder window. (See also sciencemuseumgroup.) That emblem is covered on the photo on the Bolex Collector page by the wide angle viewer attachment which would slide over the normal viewer. I don't have that attachment. That attachment would apparently be for focal lengths less than 12.5mm. For focal lengths 12.5mm to 36mm there is a small swivel dial at the top of the winder side of the camera for the built-in zoom viewfinder. The camera has 7 speeds of 8, 12, 16, 24, 32, 48 and 64 frames per second. The filming speed dial is below and to the rear of the zoom viewfinder dial. In front of the filming speed dial there is a small chart showing corresponding shutter speed for each for each filming speed. The large winding lever is below the dials. This model does not have an exposure meter. There is a small chart at the bottom of the camera with suggested apertures at 16 fps for various lighting conditions for color and black and white film. The camera originally sold for $119.50 with a fixed focus f2.8 lens according to an ad in the November 15, 1954 Life Magazine available on Google Books. That's over $1,300 in February 2023 dollars. The camera was also being sold on page 89 of the New 1957 Camera Shop Catalog for $117.49. The owner's manual is at vintagecameras.fr. FilmPhotographyProject has a video on using the similar one lens Bolex C-8. I don't recall where I got my camera. It is in very good cosmetic condition. It does not wind or run at all, however. It did not come with any lenses. Cinetinker has a very comprehensive discussion on servicing a similar Bolex D8L.|
|Bolex B8-L (1958-1961) (With Box, Manual and Strap, Large Image, Other Side) Dates are from Bolex Collector. "The B8L was the first Bolex camera with through-the-lens metering," as well as "the first 8mm Bolex with a variable shutter (for in-camera fades and mixes)." (Science Museum Group.) Uses double 8 film. Capable of 12, 16, 18, 24, 32, 48 and 64 frames per second, as well as single frame. Two lens turret. B models have two lens turrets, C models have one lens and D models have a three lens turret. The L means it has a light meter. (flickr - anachrocomputer.) Spring wound motor. My camera has two lenses. One is a Yvar 36mm, f2.8. The other is a Yvar 13mm, f1.9. Both have the very cool Kern Paillard II metal screw-on lens caps.
The B-8L was one of three Bolex 8mm turret cameras in the 1961 Sears Camera Catalog (prices good until January 26, 1962). The first was the B-8SL with a 12.5 f2.5 Yvar lens and a 36mm f2.8 Yvar lens for $119.50. Next was the B-8L with one 13mm f1.9 lens for $149.50. Third was the D-8L with one 13mm f1.9 lens for $129.50. (It says camera only, but then says the lens is supplied.) The $149.50 price for the B-8L is equal to almost $1,500 adjusted for inflation as I write this in January 2023. Both the B-8L and B-8SL were twin turret models, while the D-8L had a three lens turret. The B-8L had a variable shutter for fade-ins and fade-outs and seven controlled speeds, while the B-8SL had only one film speed (18 fps) and no variable shutter. Hence, the B-8L was more expensive despite being supplied with only one lens. I haven't figured out why the three lens D-8L is less expensive than the twin turret B-8L. All three of these cameras had the "Compumatic" through-the-lens metering. All three cameras had non-reflex viewing with different sized rectangles in the viewfinder for different focal length lenses.
I purchased my camera on eBay on December 21, 2022 for $35 plus $2.98 tax. Shipping was included in the price. The original box and owner's manual was included. The seller was very helpful and included some additional material. The camera is in good cosmetic condition. It winds and runs although the speeds sound slow. The meter does not work. I assume it is a Selenium meter which can deteriorate over time. (See filmkorn.org, cameracollector.) I was looking at Bolex cameras after seeing the Steven Spielberg film, The Fabelmans. The complete list of cameras observed in the movie is set forth in the Bolex H-16 entry above. As indicated there, the B-8L, or a similar model, was Steven's Spielberg's first camera model. Spielberg donated his actual Bolex camera to The National Museum of American Jewish History in Philadelphia. (See 8mmforum.film-tech.com, centraljersey.com, Rosie's Workshop.)
|Bolex H16 S (1963-1969) (Large Image) Dates are from Bolex Collector. That site lists the start of the serial numbers for the H16 S at 200000. The serial number on my camera is actually slightly lower than this but it is clearly labeled a Bolex H16 S. I therefore assume my camera is from 1963. Mine is the round base model. Starting in 1964 the base was flat so that you could set the camera upright on a level surface. (I had to put something under my camera to take the photos of it.) This was the last of the H-16 series dating back to 1935, an incredible run for a camera! The improvements in this final model are discussed at Bolex Collector. My camera was a generous gift in January 2014 from a gentleman in Massachusetts. His father bought it used in 1975. He also gave me a Bell & Howell Filmo Double Eight Movie camera, Bell & Howell 16 mm Filmo projector 57 Model "G", and an 8 mm Univex Model P-500 projector. As I write this in December 2022, I feel terrible that it took me so long to do the write up. The camera is in good cosmetic condition. It winds and seems to run fine although I have not thoroughly tested it. The knob on the crank arm broke off before I got it. The knob is included, however. The camera has three lenses: (1) 75mm YVAR f2.8 (Switzerland), (2) 16mm, Som Berthiot f2.8 (France), and (3) 25mm, Som Berthiot f1.9 (Paris). The camera was, of course, made in Switzerland. Unlike the H-16 above, this camera did not come with an eye level focusing tube. Instead, you look down the "critical visual focuser." Collectors Weekly has an extensive discussion of Bolex cameras.|
|Bolex P1 Zoom Reflex (1961) (Large Image) The first of the Bolex Zoom Reflex series, the Swiss made P1 featured reflex viewing, focusing, exposure and zooming with a built-in French 5X zoom Som Berthoit Pan-Cinor f1.9 lens with a focal length of 8mm to 40mm. According to www.bolexcollector.com the P1 model was made from 1961 to 1964. Mine has a serial number located at the tripod socket of 904127 making it from the first year of production in 1961. Super8man describes it as "a marvel of form and function." Both www.bolexcollector.com and Super8man have detailed technical and practical information. Super8wiki states: "First Bolex with an integral reflex viewfinder, through the lens metering and fixed zoom lens. However it continued the same compact body as the B8, C8 and D8 cameras. Subsequent models P2 and P3 shared the same body. The P2 was a cheaper version with a shorter range zoom and the P3 added power zooming and minor improvements." "Filming with a Bolex P1 Camera" describes the basic filming procedures. The manual is at: apecity.com. You take the exposure reading and set the aperture before you start filming. Once you start filming the exposure meter no longer works. You wind by winding the winding key back and forth until it stops. This gives you about 7 feet of film or about 31 seconds at 18 frames a second. A full roll of film only gives you about 3 minutes of filming. Quite a change compared to today (2013) when digital still/movie cameras will record high definition video with sound for about 240 minutes on a $12, 16GB, SD card. The original battery for the meter was a Mallory RM 450 mercury battery which is no longer available. A PR675 Wein Cell with spacer can be used instead as described at bolexrepair.com which also does repairs this and certain other 8mm Bolex cameras. My camera is in excellent cosmetic condition. The camera winds and runs although it sounds a bit strange at times. I'm sure it could use a cleaning, lube and adjustment after likely sitting for 50 years. (See www.bolexrepair.com. It comes with the very cool leather case. I purchased mine at a Fletcher Hills (El Cajon, CA) yard sale on April 20, 2013 for about $10 - not bad for a very handsome precision Swiss camera.|
|Bolex K2 Zoom Reflex Automatic (1965) (Large Image) The Bolex K2 was made from 1964 to 1966 with my camera having serial no. B61746 being made in 1965 according to the chart at bolexcollector.com. I bought it from the same seller as the P1 above for $10. I assume it likely was purchased originally as an update to the P1. It maintains a key wind motor, but has two batteries at the base to power the zoom. The zoom can also be moved manually. Both the camera and the KERN Vario-Switar 8-36mm, f1.9, zoom lens were made in Switzerland. The camera winds and runs. It takes three mercury batteries - two for the power zoom and one for the exposure meter. Forum.filmshooting.com has a discussion on alternatives today. Mine is in excellent cosmetic condition. It also winds and runs fine. The glass is free of mold or scratches. I don't know if the meter or power zoom work because I can't figure out how to get the battery cap off. Simply twisting it with a coin is not allowing it to come off. It comes with the original Styrofoam packing but no box. There was also a case which may belong to this camera although the Yashica Super 800 I also bought was in that case.|
|Bolex 18-5L Super 8 Projector (1965-1966) (Large Image) Dates are from www.bolexcollector.com which has the specifications and other information. Mine is serial no. 4 434 598 (behind single foot on bottom) making it from 1966. That site points out that when Bolex introduced the Bolex 18-05L Super 8 projector, it did not have a Super 8 camera. It would not be until 1967 when that they introduced the Bolex 150 Super 8 camera. I purchased my Bolex 18-5L Super 8 projector with the Bolex K2 and P1 above for about $10. There was another similar projector without the cover. I'm guessing it was a Bolex 18-5 regular 8 projector. Had I known that, I might have gotten it also although I have several regular 8 projectors. Many later projectors could take either regular 8 or super 8 film. Bolex.collector has a neat ad for the introduction of the Bolex 18-5L Super. The instruction manual is at hypnagogicmindset. Mine is in good cosmetic condition. It has a little rust on the outside. I haven't run it since I don't have the cord.|
|Canon Reflex Zoom 8 (Large Image Side A, (Large Image Side B) according to Canon Camera Museum marketed October 1959. This is a regular 8mm movie camera. It has a manual wind motor. It has a Selenium exposure meter (no battery) on top which is coupled to the aperture. You turn the aperture until it matches with the exposure needle on the top. It is not through the lens metering. The subsequent model, the Canon Reflex Zoom 8-2, had a CdS meter with a battery just above the viewfinder. (See Wiki - Manual for Canon Reflex Zoom 8-2.) The camera has single lens reflex viewing with a 10mm to 40mm f1.4 zoom lens. On the wide end, that's medium telephoto since the "crop factor" is 7.87. An equivalent field of view range on a 35mm camera would be seen on a zoom of about 80 to 320mm. (See www.scantips.com - Equivalent Focal Length for a Cropped Sensor.) It's hard to make a wide angle lens when the film area is so small. The viewfinder has a horizontal split image to aid in focusing. The eyepiece has a diopter adjustment. The price for the camera in the 1961 Sears Camera Catalog was $239.95. Sounds like a moderate price until you adjust for inflation. $239.95 in 1961 has the equivalent buying power as $2,150 as I write this in May 2021. Mine includes the Canon C-8 Trigger Grip which sold for $10.55 in the 1961 Sears Camera Catalog. The grip has an arm that attaches to the shutter release button to allow you to control the shutter with the grip. The camera is described at Todd MacDonald - Canon Zoom 8. I think I bought this at a garage sale, although I don't recall any details. It is in very good cosmetic condition. I think it works fine. It winds and runs. The meter moves appropriately. Overall, it's a pretty sophisticated, but easy to use, camera especially considering there is not a single battery in the entire camera.|
|Canon Auto Zoom 814 Super 8 (Large Image Side A, (Large Image Side B) according to Canon Camera Museum marketed March 1967, with a 8X f1.4 lens, with a power or manual zoom control. There was a later Canon Auto Zoom 814 Electronic version released in March 1972. I have not been able to find the original price. It is a more sophisticated camera than the Canon Auto Zoom 518 Super 8 below, however, and therefore, I assume it was considerably more than the $230 price of the Zoom 518. I don't recall where I originally acquired this camera. It is in good cosmetic condition. It originally was not running due to corrosion in the battery compartment. Removing two screws on the handle allows you to get to the battery compartment terminals. With considerable effort I was able to remove the corrosion and got the camera working. (I actually removed a lot more screws than I needed to, but was able to get everything back together.) It seems to work fine now. The battery compartment takes 4 AA 1.5 volt batteries. It also takes 2x 1.3V PX625 (mercury) batteries for meter. I did not have these and therefore have not checked the meter. The meter battery compartment is very clean, however. My camera is in a custom Canon case and includes 58mm UV, skylight and neutral density filters. A quick review of the web indicates it is a well respected camera with several sites and YouTube videos discussing it. EBay prices for working models can be in hundreds as I write this in May 2022. Some people apparently still like to use Super 8 cameras for an artsy look, even though one's smart phone takes much higher quality stills and videos and cost of film and processing is expensive.|
|Canon Auto Zoom 518 Super 8 according to Canon Camera Museum marketed September 1967. This one was sold much later, however, since it came with a warranty card indicating it was purchased from College Camera in San Diego on 8-21-72. Serial no. 342935. Came with the box, case and manual. It has a price tag on the box for $229.90 from North Park Camera in San Diego. $229.90 in 1972 is over $1,140 in 2007 dollars. 9.5 to 47.5mm f1.8 zoom lens, both power and manual. Speeds of 18 fps and slow motion of approximately 40 fps. Reflex viewing and focusing. F-stops viewable in viewfinder. Exposure meter operating on two 1.3 volt mercury batteries. Motor for film is run by three 1.5 volt AA batteries in the top battery compartment. Motor for the power zoom is run by one 1.5 volt AA battery in the handle. The power zoom feature and handle is the major change from the prior Zoom 518 Super 8 model marketed December 1964 according to Canon Camera Museum. My Auto Zoom 518 has a sound feature which is not mentioned at the Canon site and is not included in the manual except on a separate loose page which explains the process. The box also refers to the sound feature only with a separate sticker stuck on the box. Close examination of the camera in the main manual indeed reveals that it does not have the remote and sound input jacks that my camera has and which are shown on the separate loose page. These jacks are also not mentioned at the Canon site. Recording of sound involved use of a separate sound tape recorder which I do not have. The late purchase date of this camera may be an indication it was a later variation of the original Auto Zoom 518 Super 8. It wouldn't be until August 1976 that Canon came out with their first true sound camera, the Canon 514 XL-S below. Purchased at a La Mesa, CA yard sale as I recall in early 2007 for $15. The camera belonged to the seller's father. The seller recalled that the sound feature was big deal back then and his dad would spend a lot of time getting the sound right. In very good cosmetic condition. Meter responds to light but is likely inaccurate since I used 1.5 volt PX625 silver oxide batteries. I could not get the motor or power zoom to work. I don't know if you need film in it for the motor and zoom to work, but I doubt it. There may be a corrosion problem especially in the handle battery compartment. Manual focusing and zoom work fine. Lens is clear.||Canon 514 XL-S, (August 1976) compact sound super 8 movie camera Which according to the Canon Camera Museum was their first sound camera and became a long-selling hit. Sophisticated sound system with automatic and manual audio level controls. Fast f1.4 5X power zoom lens, 9mm to 45mm. 18 and 24 frames per second and single frame in silent mode. Operates on 6 AA bateries which fit in handle. (See view with handle. View above is with handle folded.) Cost in 1978-79 Sears Camera Catalog was $354.50, over $1,000 in 2005 dollars as measured from 1978! Camera was purchased at a local garage sale around November 2005 for $15. It is in excellent cosmetic and working condition. Includes leather case.|
|Cinemaster II G-8, 8mm movie camera made by Universal Camera Corporation of New York in the United States. Three speeds: 16, 24 and 32 frames per second. Manual wind. It has some sort of exposure meter which you turn and it shows some sort of scale. When doing this the image is very dark and I'm not sure if it is working. Interchangeable 1/2 inch focal length, f2.5 to 16 lens. Very heavy, all metal construction. Purchased at a La Mesa garage sale on October 8, 2005 for less than $2. In excellent working condition with original box, but no manual. One was being sold on eBay at the same time. The description stated it was purchased in 1946 with an original price tag of $66 which is about $665 in 2005 dollars. Collecting Movie Cameras confirms the 1946 date with an original price of $51. About 12.5cm x 5cm x 9.5cm.|
|DeJur Electra (1958) (Large Image) Date is from a magazine ad published Oct. 26, 1958 in the Chicago Sunday Tribune Magazine on eBay. Made by DeJur Amsco Corporation. Turet with three lenses: DeJur Bausch & Lomb Telephoto f/1.8; DeJur Bausch & Lomb Wideangle f/1.8; DeJur Bausch & Lomb 13mm f/1.8. According to the above advertisement, it sold for $149.95, or about $1,565 in March 2023 dollars adjusted for inflation. A later model with a single zoom lens sold for $169.95 according to an advertisement on eBay estimated to be from the early 1960s. While the eBay listing is no longer available, I assume that camera is the DeJur Electra Automatic Zoom 8 or a similar model. I don't recall exactly where or when I got this. I think it is a garage sale item purchased for at most a few dollars.|
|DeJur Custom Electra Automatic Zoom 8 Model DC-1601 (Circa 1960) (Large Image, Other Side) Double 8mm roll film key wind silent movie camera. Date is based on the printing code that ends in 6-60 on page 17 of the manual that came with my camera. The date sounds reasonable since the Electra Automatic Zoom 8 is an update to the 1958 turret Electra model above replacing the turret lens assembly with a zoom lens controlled by two mechanical push buttons at the top of the camera. There were two Electra Automatic Zoom 8 models - the DC-1601 with roll film, and the DC-1801 with a film magazine. The manual for both cameras is at vintagecameras.fr. The aperture settings are from f1.8 to f16. The focal length is not given on the lens or in the manual. The angle of view appears to be roughly a 75 to 200mm full 35mm frame equivalent. In automatic mode the camera selects the aperture. The camera has a Selenium meter. In either automatic mode or manual mode, the aperture is shown at the bottom of the non-reflex viewfinder. The camera focuses from six feet to infinity. Focus is by estimation. The camera has a single speed. ASA settings are from 10 to 40. While I have not tested it thoroughly, my automatic meter still seems to be working! There is a lever to increase the aperture in backlight situations. The camera winds and runs well. The camera is made in the USA by DeJur-Amsco Corp. From my earlier research on the DeJur Electra Turret model above where I found an eBay ad for an Electra Zoom model, I think this model or a similar model sold for $169.95, or about $1,750 in March 2023 dollars. Looking through eBay, there were similar models including the Electra 444 and the Electra 888. I probably got this camera many years ago at a garage sale for a few dollars or so. It comes with the manual and a case.|
|DeJur 750 8mm Projector (1955) Date from owner's manual and listed in 1955 Sears Camera Catalog. 750 Watt lamp, f1.6 lens. Price in 1955 Sears Camera Catalog was $159.50, equal to $1,256.62 in 2009 dollars! In excellent cosmetic and working condition. Comes with hard case, manual and empty reel. Made in USA. Purchased at a private estate sale in the Allied Gardens area of San Diego on 2-22-09 for about $10.|
|Elmo Zoom 8-TL Model 6 (8-TL6) (1965) (Large Image, Other Side) Regular 8 silent movie camera. Date from Super8wiki.com. The comments section states: "Very rare and is often prized by camera collectors." There is a door on the top of the camera where an optional 100 ft. film magazine fits. Photomemorabilia.co.uk has a photo of the camera with the optional film magazine and a hand grip. It also has a description from the 1965 Amateur Photographer Cine Guide stating: "7.5-45mm f/1.8 focusing lens. Fully automatic through the lens photocell exposure control with manual override. Built-in power zooming independent of camera drive (two speed zooming when grip is attached). Electric motor drive (four pencells) [four 1.5 volt AA batteries] 12, 16, 24, 32, 64 f.p.s. and single frames. Reverse running (on 3 speeds). Automatic threading of take-up spool. Frame counter. Reflex viewing with split-image rangefinder, aperture, film run-out and reverse running also indicated in viewfinder. Accessory 100ft magazine fits on top of camera, takes standard 100ft spools, has separate take-up drive motor automatically controlled with camera release. With grip and wrist strap 156 pounds 10 shillings. 8-TL4, identical but with 7.5-30mm lens . . .. TL-100 magazine 45 pounds, including zip pouch. Made in Japan." 156 British Pounds in 1965 equals 2,445.24 Pounds in 2023 Pounds. (Bank of England Inflation Calculator. As I write this in April 2023, 1 British Pound equals $1.24 U.S. Therefore, 2,445.24 British Pounds x 1.24 dollars/pound = $3,032. Even if this methodology is off, it was an expensive camera. There are several photos of the Elmo Zoom 8-TL6 at the German site unaw.de/museum. Elmo is a Japanese company founded in 1921 known for its amateur movie equipment. Today it is well-known for its document cameras and other presentation equipment. (Wikipedia - Elmo, Camera-Wiki - Elmo, elmousa.com - An-Ode-To-Elmo.) As a teacher in the 2010s, I used an Elmo document camera extensively. I don't recall where I got my Elmo Zoom 8-TL Model 6 camera. It is in decent cosmetic condition with some residue from stickers on it. The batteries leaked at some point and hence there was significant corrosion and deterioration on the negative terminal as well as corrosion in the battery case. I hence have not been able to get the camera to work.|
|Honeywell Elmo Super Filmatic 104, circa 1967, super 8 single lens reflex (through the lens viewing and focusing) silent movie camera, made in Japan, with 3X f8.5mm to 34mm, f1.8 zoom lens. Powered by 4 AA batteries in a plastic holder in a compartment at the top of the camera. A 625 button battery at the opening of the film compartment apparently controls the meter. 625 batteries, common in many cameras of the era, were mercury batteries and no longer available. Alternatives are available, however. See, e.g., Miranda Camera Battery. There is a label attached to the camera stating "CDS BATT 2.26.72" which I assume was the last time this battery was replaced. 18 and 24 frames per second. Apparently manual and automatic exposure. In very good cosmetic condition. The lens looks clear but with some slight internal spots. (I don't think it is mold. Maybe a slight coating problem.) Viewfinder image is clear and useable but quite dark and with a yellow cast. The camera is not working yet. There is very slight corrosion on the spring to the negative terminal and the corresponding connection to the battery pack. I need to clean these and try fresh batteries. It appears to be a fairly sophisticated camera approaching the sophistication of the Minolta Autopak-8 D6 below. Purchased at a La Mesa garage sale on October 8, 2005 for less than $2.|
|Elmo Super 8 Sound 230S-XL (1980-1983) (Large Image) Sound Super 8 movie camera. Made in Japan. Elmo Co., Ltd. Serial No. 222244. Elmo Zoom Lens 10.5 to 26.5mm (2.5X zoom), f1.2. Manual or electronic zoom. Mic input and some sort of hot shoe. Powered by six 1.5 volt AA cells in the handle which power the exposure meter, film motor and zoom motor. Dates are from super8wiki.com which also indicates frame rate of 18 frames per second and a shutter degree of 220. According www.super8data.com it takes sound and silent super 8 cartridge film including the Kodak Supermatic 60-m cassette. The camera has reflex through the lens viewing and focusing. The focus ring has clicks or stops at 1.5', 2.5', 5' and infinity. The travel of the focus ring is short - perhaps 60 degree. There is no microprism or split screen to aid focusing. The clicks appear to be to allow you to use a zone focusing. Additionally, the focus can be locked at 5 feet. This feature is apparently the "focus free" feature referred to on the right side of the camera. When you fix the focus at 5 feet the zoom range is also limited to about half its normal range I assume so that the focal length is sufficiently wide angle to get enough depth of field to reach from near to infinity. "Focus free" or "fixed focus" is usually a sign of a cheap camera and lens. It often seems to be designed to get the consumer to think the camera is "auto focus" which is much more sophisticated and wasn't available in single lens reflex still cameras until about 1984 with the advent of the Minolta 7000. (Pentax and Canon had auto focus single lens reflex cameras preceding the Minolta 7000 but the autofocus was only available with a few special lenses.) While this camera would have been an entry level sound camera it was not cheap. Super8wiki.com says it was 150 pounds in the United Kingdom.|
|There is a very informative brochure at apecity.com that explains this camera can take a 200 foot extended film cassette that fits on top of the camera. The camera has a hinged door on the top to allow the extended film cassette. This allows filming up to 13 minutes, 20 seconds, four times longer than the normal 50 foot film cassette. These film cassettes appear to at least double the height of the camera. There were also similar 240 and 260S-XL models with wider range zoom lenses with macro capabilities. I purchased my camera on April 13, 2013 at a La Mesa, CA garage sale for $3. It is in good cosmetic condition. The batteries were left inside and were heavily corroded. I was able to clean the corrosion out, however, and the camera now runs. By the end of the 1980s sound movie cameras were largely obsolete taken over by camcorders. A principal advantage of a camcorder is the video tape allowed much longer recording at a much lower cost. This offset the initial high price of the camcorder. In the early 1980s video cameras and cassette recorders, followed by camcorders which included the camera and recorder together, were much larger than a movie camera like this Elmo. By the end of the 1980s, however, 8mm camcorders were only slightly larger than this Elmo and prices were steadily declining. Today for a little more than $100 you can get a high definition digital camcorder that is much smaller than this Elmo and that records on an SD card. Compared to this Elmo, the visual and sound quality, and convenience, are much higher at a fraction of the price. A lot has changed in 30 years! Film aficionados still like using old movie cameras, however, and the cameras still have some value. For example, an Elmo 240S-XL sold for $49.95 in January 2013 on eBay. (See also List of Cameras of Similar Vintage at City College of San Francisco.)|
|GAF ST/602, Super 8 with 6X power zoom lens, 8mm to 48mm, f1.8. In decent working and cosmetic condition except the leatherette covering is off or coming off leaving a sticky residue I haven't been able to get rid of yet. According to Super8Wiki, frame rates of 18, 24 and single frame. May have been made by Chinon. Price in 1977-78 Sears Camera Catalog was 194.50, about $650 in 2007 dollars. Purchased at a Fletcher Hills (El Cajon, CA) garage sale around March 2007 for about $1.|
|Keystone A-7 (Circa 1935-1949) (Large Image, Second Camera) 16mm key-wind movie camera with seven speeds from 10 to 64 frames per second. Camera states it was made in the U.S.A. by Keystone Mfg. Co., Boston, Mass. Dates are from Collecting Keystone - Confirmed Model Numbers. Collectingkeystone.com also has a timeline of Keystone from 1919 to 1967. Keystone was originally a toy company and at some point starting making cameras also. The camera has all metal construction with dimensions of about 9 inches by 4 inches by 2-5/16 inches. It weighs almost 4 pounds. The manual is at shikan.org. Jollinger.com has a wonderful 1939 Keystone Catalog which includes a price list. A Model A7 with f1.5 lens was $71 ($1,550) and with a f2.7 lens was $44.50 ($970). The A7 cameras had seven speeds. There were similar A3 cameras with three speeds selling for $67.50 ($1,470) with f1.5 lens and $35 ($760) with f3.5 lens. Finally, there was the one speed model B1 with special f3.5 lens selling for $29.95 ($650). The B-1 model appears to be the model in the 1941 Sears Camera Book at page 23. It sold for $26.95 ($550) with an f3.5 lens, $39.95 ($817) with a f2.7 lens, and $63.90 ($1,300) with a f1.5 lens. The numbers in parenthesis are approximate February 2023 values adjusted for inflation. I have two of these cameras which I coincidently both acquired the same week in October 2015 from two different sources! The first has a one inch Wollensak Cine Raptar f2.5 fixed focus lens. The camera is in decent cosmetic condition. It winds and runs. The motor was a bit sluggish at first, but with a drop of oil as referred to at a Film Photography Project YouTube video it is running fine. The lens looks good and the apertures work. The camera was a generous gift around October 10, 2015 from a gentleman in Westlake Village, California. It was his dad's old camera. His father was a physician who passed away in 1969. The second is in similar condition. It has a Bell & Howell Super Comet 1 inch f1.9 lens which focuses from 18 inches to infinity. That lens is also in good shape, with a smooth focus and working apertures. Focus is by estimation since these cameras have simple viewfinders. I purchased several cameras including this, a Minolta Autocord, a Yashica-Mat 124G, a Zenit-E 35mm SLR, a Beautycord S camera, a Nikon 80-200 f4.5 lens, a Tamron 35mm to 80mm f2.8-3.5 lens with adaptall mount for Nikon, and a wood case that fits everything for a total of $77 at a La Mesa, California garage sale on October 25, 2015.|
|Keystone K-33 Olympic (1956) (Large Image) Double run 8mm. Date is from collectingkeystone.com which also has a 1956 Catalog stating the price effective September 1, 1956 with an f2.5 lens as $84.95. ($923 in November 2022 dollars.) The Keystone K-33X was also advertised in the 1957 Montgomery Ward Camera Shop at page 89 for $86.90 with f2.3 lens (was $101.90). I assume the X designation was for the camera with the exposure meter. The camera without the exposure meter was $74.95 (previously $86.90). The meter was also sold separately for $16.95. The meter was not coupled. It clipped onto the top and gave you the aperture reading that you then set on the lens. The meter in the Ward catalog looks to be the same as the one on my Keystone K-48. The K-48 camera is very similar to the Keystone K-33 except the K-48 has a three lens turret and magazine loading. My K-33 camera has a Keystone-Elegeet 1/2 inch f2.3 lens, which I assume is the same lens as in the Ward catalog, although the lens pictured there looks longer. The camera has speeds of 16, 12, 24, and 48 frame per second. It has a non-reflex viewfinder with settings for different focal length lenses of "W.A." wide angle, 1/2 inch, 1 inch and 1 1/2 inch. There is an exposure guide on the back. My camera winds and runs. It is in good cosmetic condition with a prior owner's last name inscribed on top. It looks like it might be missing a cover where the light meter would be attached. There is no film inside. It came with the original box in poor condition. It also came with the Instructions for Use. As I write this in January 2023, I assume I bought this at a garage sale many years ago. The camera was made in the U.S.A. and Keystone was headquartered in Boston. Collectingkeystone.com has a timeline of Keystone from 1919 to 1967. It was originally a toy company and at some point starting making cameras also.|
|Keystone K-48 Bel Air Magazine 8mm (Large Image) (1957) The camera label states the model as "Keystone K-48 Bel Air Magazine 8mm." The label also has serial no. 2400259 and an exposure guide. The Keystone K-48 appears in the 1957 Montgomery Ward Camera Shop Catalog at page 90 stating it is a "newly designed magazine loading camera." It was $163.40, with a "now" price of $149.39. $149.39 has the equivalent buying power of $1,223.94 in 2012 dollars. I took the photo of my Keystone K-48 with a new Fujifilm HS 30EXR "bridge" digital camera which I got for Christmas December 2012 for $250, the same month I am writing this entry. It is amazing how cameras have changed since 1957 which also happens to be the year I was born. While my new Fujifilm HS 30EXR camera is primarily a digital still camera, it also takes high definition movies with stereo sound. The HS 30EXR camera has a 30 times zoom lens and can focus down to 1cm. Photos and movies can be viewed immediately on the camera's screen or on a computer monitor, television or digital projector. The Keystone K-48, of course, recorded its images on photographic movie film. There was no sound. A 25 foot 8mm magazine of Kodak film was $2.98 in the Wards catalog. Processing by Wards was $1.10. The film and processing was slightly over $4 per roll which gave you about 3 minutes of filming time. $4 in 1957 has a buying power of over $32 today! My new camera stores the still images and movies on an SD card with dimensions of approximately 2.4cm x 3.2cm x 0.2cm and a mass of about 2 grams. I purchased a high speed 16GB SD card for $12. One minute of video takes up about 100MB or 0.1GB. A 16GB card can hence hold about 160 minutes of high definition video. I don't think that anyone even thought of storing photographic images in digital form in 1957. (See generally Carlson, CGI (Computer Generated Imagery) Timeline.) In 1957 the only computers were huge mainframe computers costing hundreds of thousands of dollars. In 1956 an IBM RAMAC hard drive stored a total of 5 megabytes, weighed about a ton, and cost $35,000 a year to rent! (See In 1955 a 5MB Drive Weighed a Ton and Cost $35,000.) $35,000 in 1957 is about $300,000 in 2012 dollars. My parents paid $20,000 in 1957 for their house. My neighbor bought their house for about $17,000 in 1959. My 16GB SD memory card holds over 3,000 times more data than the RAMAC hard drive.|
|I purchased my Keystone K-48 I believe several years prior to writing this in 2012. I guessing I purchased it a garage sale for probably under $10. It is in very good cosmetic condition. I also believe it is in good working condition, although I have not run film through it. It winds well and the motor runs well. The Keystone accessory exposure meter made by General Electric still responds to light. (It locks into place with a sliding button on top of the camera.) The camera has a three lens turret. The widest angle lens is a Kinotar 7mm f2.5 made in Japan. The next lens is a Keystone Elgeet 1/2 inch f2.3. The final lens is a 1.5 inch Kinotel f2.9 made in Japan. I'm guessing the Keystone Elgeet 1/2 inch f2.3 lens is made in the United States and is likely the single lens used on the less expensive Keystone K-42. The camera itself is made in the United States. A slide switch on top of the K-48 allows you to select the frame of the viewfinder for the 1/2", 1", or wide angle lens. The camera runs at 12, 16, 24 or 48 frames per second. There is a tripod socket on the bottom of the camera. My camera came with the original box. Loose inside is a price sticker from "White's" with a price of $159.00 which is in the ballpark of the price in the Montgomery Ward Camera catalog.|
|Keystone K26 (1958) date from www.agassiztrading.com. Three lens turret with Elgeet 25mm f1.8 telephoto lens, Keystone 12.7mm f1.8 normal lens, and Elgeet 9mm f1.8mm wide angle lens. Each of these lenses is removable. The removable normal lens is actually blank and just servers as a lens shade. The actual normal lens must be built into the camera. The telephoto lens and the wide angle lens cover that normal lens and hence must be supplementary lenses which rely on the normal lens. Aperture settings of f1.8 ("Dark Day"), f2.8 ("Cloudy Dull"), f4 ("Light Shade"), f5.6 ("Hazy Sun"), f8 ("Bright Sun"), 11 and 16. There is also an A and N setting which appears to place a filter in front of the primary lens and just before either of the two supplementary lenses. I assume A stands for Amber filter and N stands for normal. It has a removable light meter on top which does not seem to be working. Made in USA with a Boston address. The camera is in good cosmetic and working condition from what I can tell. The lines in the viewfinder are coming off, however. Purchased at a garage sale in the Del Cerro area of San Diego on 7-5-08 for $5. The seller was a dealer of World War II uniforms and memorabilia.|
|Keystone 109d 8mm projector (circa 1957) (Large Image) Date from an eBay entry. I'm not sure how accurate it is. Purchased at a Fletcher Hills area of El Cajon, CA garage sale on 5-23-09 for $10. In very good cosmetic and working condition. Comes with large case with a K shape design. Note that the projector itself forms a K shape. This was a typical design for projectors at the time, but the K shape is very pronounced here and hence perhaps a design effect also to capitalize on the Keystone name.|
|Kodascope 8 Model 70 (1937-1938) date from C.J. Camera's & Projectoren. 8mm film projector. Made in USA by Eastman Kodak, Rochester, New York. 600 watts. Slow - Fast setting. The label states: "Use with slow burning film only." Early film had a nitrate base which was very flamable. In the 1930s less flamable cellulose acetate propionate and cellulose acetate butyrate bases were used. These would have been "slow burning films." In the late 1940s a cellulose triacetate base was developed which was even safer. Later these less flammable films were known as "safety films." While these acetate based films were safe, it was later discovered that they degrade over time giving off acetic acid, the key ingredient in vinegar. This decay has been termed "the vinegar syndrome" and has been a major threat to preserving motion pictures. (Wikipedia - Cellulose Acetate Film.) This projector was a donation from the Stella Maris Academy Kindergarten teacher. It belonged to her grandfather. It is in very good cosmetic and working condition (motor and lamp work) although I have not run film through it. It came in the original box. It also included literature for the Bell & Howell Sportster similar to mine above. A wonderful gift to the museum. Thanks!|
|Cine-Kodak Magazine 16 (Large Image, Other Side) (Circa 1948) Date for this 16mm magazine, spring wound, movie camera is from Ollinger's Camera Collection which also has the manual. My camera looks similar the one at the Ollinger site, although mine does not have a film plane indicator on the side and does not have the word "camera" after Cine Kodak Magazine 16. My camera is also similar to the Kodak Cine 16mm below but not identical. That camera has the film plane indicator and the word "camera." It also has a different looking bayonet mount compared to either this camera or the Ollinger camera. I believe they are all variations of the same model, however. The camera was sold on page 58 of the 1948 Montgomery Ward Photographic Catalog for $175 which is about a rather astonishingly $2,175 in April 2023 dollars. The camera pictured in the catalog looks like mine but with the name plate reading "Magazine Cine-Kodak 16mm" and without the alternating black and chrome bars that the other name-plates have. Like the camera in the catalog, my camera is fitted with a 25mm (1 inch) f1.9 Kodak Anastigmat lens. Film speeds are 16, 32 and 64 frames per second. The optical viewfinder is built into the carrying handle and can be adjusted to coincide with the angle of view of seven different lenses. The lens has a bayonet type mount. On the side of the camera is "Cine-Kodak Universal Guide" to calculate exposure. You insert the card for the film you are using. My camera has the card for Kodachrome Film - Daylight Type. I purchased my Cine-Kodak Magazine movie camera on February 6, 2010 along with a Minolta Hi-Matic 7 on eBay for $0.99 plus $10.49 shipping for a total of $11.48. It is in good condition except the front lens of the viewfinder which folds down is badly cracked. The camera winds and runs fine.|
|I have two undeveloped magazines of "Cine-Kodak Kodachrome Safety Color Film for Daylight." (Box, Magazine Front, Magazine Back) Each magazine holds 50 feet of double perforated film. 16mm Filmmaking takes one of these magazines apart and shows how they work. Each magazine stated: "Loaded with Kodak film - This magazine is the property of Kodak." The user would expose the film and then send the magazine back to Kodak in the original box. Kodak would develop the film and then send it back to the user. Kodak would then reload the magazine, box it and sell it to another customer. The metal magazine and all its parts were hence recycled. You can still get 16mm magazines from the Film Photography Project loaded with new unexposed film. You shoot the film and return it to them. They develop the film, digitally scan it and return it to you. At 16 fps you get about 2.5 minutes of filming. (Analog Resurgence - 30's Movie Camera and Film Photography Project.) It's not exactly cheap at $85 per magazine for color reversal film, although it's pretty cool that you can still use these cameras and 16mm film magazines. Coincidentally, the price in 1948 was just about the same! Kodachrome 16mm magazines sold for $6.35 at page 84 of the 1948 Montgomery Ward Photographic Catalog. Sounds like a reasonable cost, but adjusted for inflation, that equals about $80 in 2022 dollars! Of course, Kodachrome film is no longer used. Kodachrome film was originally introduced in 1935 and discontinued in 2009, with processing discontinued in 2010. (Kodachrome - Wikipedia) Kodachrome "did not contain . . . color dyes, unlike its rivals. Instead, Kodachrome had three different monochrome layers - to which the three primary colors were added with dye coupler during a complex chemical development." (www.digitalcamera.world) Due to the complex development, Kodachrome had to be developed by Kodak or licensed developers. (Kodachrome - Wikipedia) I live in the San Diego area and remember having to send Kodachrome slide film to Los Angeles for processing. By the way, "safety film" is film with a cellulose acetate base. Prior to safety film, unstable and highly flammable nitrate film was used. (Cellulose Acetate Film - Wikipedia)|
|210 Brownie Movie Camera f/2.7 (Large Image) (February 1951 - March 1956) The designation and dates of production are from Brown Movie Cameras and their page for the 210 Brownie Movie Camera f/2.7. The opening page is very useful in identifying a particular Brownie movie camera model out of 25 produced! The 210 designation is not on the camera itself. The standard lens is a Cine-Kodak Ektanon 13mm f/2.7 and it does not appear to be removable. The camera has only one speed of 16 frames per second. The camera has a very simple folding sports viewfinder with no optical elements. The aperture is set by a rotating disk in front of the actual lens. The user selects the aperture based on the chart supplied with the film. That chart fits on the door of the camera. The interior of the camera states the camera is "Made in Rochester, N.Y., U.S.A. by Eastman Kodak Company." The camera takes double 8 film and the spool in the camera on one side states: "Film when on this spool is only half exposed." The use of double 8 film is explained more under the Mansfield Holiday II camera below. My camera is in good cosmetic condition with some scratches especially on the bottom. It seems to wind and run as it should. I purchased this camera on eBay for $10 plus $12.03 shipping on December 18, 2022, the day after seeing the movie The Fabelmans which is a semi-biography of the early life of famed movie director Steven Spielberg. This camera appears to be the Brownie model in movie as shown in the photo at bottom of this Vanity Fair article and the photo at the top of this article. The camera belonged to the Spielberg character's parents. The young Spielberg character uses it to film his model trains crashing simulating the train wreck scene in the movie The Greatest Show on Earth which he had recently watched. I couldn't resist getting a camera like Steven Spielberg used! Under the Bolex section above I list the cameras I think were shown in The Fabelmans.|
|Brownie Movie Camera Turret f/1.9 improved (Large Image) (1958-1963) The designation and dates of production are from Brown Movie Cameras and their page for the 210 Brownie Movie Camera f/2.7. The opening page is very useful in identifying a particular Brownie movie camera model out of 25 produced! Science Museum Group has detailed information about the turret model. The basic camera is similar to the Brownie above. The normal lens is a 13mm f1.9 lens. This lens is really inside the camera. What looks like the lens is really a lens hood. There is also a 24mm telephoto lens and 9mm wide angle lens. These two lenses actually are supplementary lenses that fit over the internal 13mm lens. To change from one lens to another you lift up on the turret and rotate it until the lenses snap into place. The lenses are not removable. There is only one speed of 16 frames/second. The winding mechanism seems to be the same as the Brownie above. The aperture is similarly set by a rotating disk. The camera has a simple sports viewfinder, but with three colored coded frames on the front to represent the wide, normal and telephoto views. The interior of the camera states the camera is "Made in Rochester, N.Y., U.S.A. by Eastman Kodak Company." Film Photography Project has a very useful YouTube video about how to use the camera. It takes double 8 film. An advertisement in the December 1955 Field & Stream magazine for sale on eBay lists the price as $79.50. As I write this in December 2022, that's equal to about $880 in 2022 dollars. The single f2.9 lens Brownie camera price is listed as $37.50. (About $415 in 2022 dollars.) The 1955 date is earlier than the 1958-1963 dates listed above. As I write this in December 2022, I don't recall where I got this camera. It was probably at a garage sale many years ago. It is in very good cosmetic condition. It seems to wind and run well. It has a reel inside with a small broken strip of unprocessed film. The sixteen page Kodak Movie News, Winter 1959-60, is a wonderful trip back to this time period.|
|Kodak Cine Automatic Turret Camera f/1.9 (Large Image, Other Side) (1959-1963) Dates are from Science Museum Group. It is similar in design to the 210 Brownie Movie Camera f/2.7 above but is more sophisticated including an automatic exposure meter, better viewfinder and better lenses. The retail price according to 1959 magazine ads for sale on eBay was $124.50 or about $1,275 in December 2022 dollars. (Although an article in retrochronicle.com says you could find them on sale for $75.) A single lens model was $92.50. Like the Brownie Turret model above, the 13mm normal f1.9 lens is actually inside the camera. What looks to be the lens is in effect a lens hood. The telephoto 24mm lens and the 6.5mm wide angle lens fit over the 13mm lens and are hence supplementary lens. The individual lenses cannot be removed from the turret. While I can't find the owner's manual online, it appears there is only one speed. There is a black three position switch above the light meter. I don't know what it does. There is also a filter switch which lets you use indoor Kodachrome film outdoors. The meter automatically adjusts the aperture which is shown by a needle on the side of meter assembly. I don't know if there is any way to manually adjust the aperture. It is a double 8mm camera. I was surprised to learn there is still film in the camera when I opened the camera door! My guess is that it is Kodachrome which can no longer be processed. I don't recall where I got this camera. It is in good cosmetic condition and it runs. The light meter is even active, although I don't know if it is accurate. You can see how this camera evolved into my dad's Kodak Cine Zoom camera below with a Zoom lens instead of a three lens turret.|
|Brownie Movie Camera f/2.3 Improved Model II (Large Image) (March 1960 - September 1962) The designation and dates of production are from Brownie Movie Cameras and their page for the 218 Brownie Movie Camera f/2.3 Improved Model II. The opening page is very useful in identifying a particular Brownie movie camera model out of 25 produced! The 218 designation is not on the camera itself and may be an identification on that webpage only. The model name (Kodak Brownie Movie Camera Improved Model II f/2.3), dates of production and pictures are the same at Indiana University Bloomington Collection. Curriously, the model looks similar or identical to the Kodak f/2.3 Brownie in the Montgomery Ward 1957 Camera Shop pages 86-87. That may cast some doubt on the dates of production, or at least confirm that there were numerous Brownie models over the years that were very similar with minor or cosmetic differences. The Ward Catalog itself has two single lens Brownie cameras. On page 86 is one with an f2.7 lens. On page 87 is the f2.3 version which also has different frames in the viewfinder for normal, wide and telephoto lenses. The lens on the camera is actually not removable. Kodak sold supplementary lenses to go over the normal lens, however. Like the other Brownie cameras, the aperture is set by a rotating plastic disc in front of the lens. Focus is fixed. The frame rate is fixed at 16 frames per second. The camera uses double 8mm film. The price of the f2.3 Brownie in the 1957 Ward catalog was $36.47, or about $380 in 2022 dollars. The Ward catalog also sold a f1.9 version for $43.47. My Brownie f/2.3 Model II is in good cosmetic and operating condition. It has a crack on the side of the front viewfinder that does not affect the use of the camera. My camera came with a leather every-ready case in very good condition. As I write this in 2023, I probably got this camera at a garage sale many years ago. The 1961 book Brownie Movie Guide is a comprehensive guide to operating Brownie cameras.|
|Kodak Instamatic M6 (circa 1966) Super 8 cartridge loading Instamatic camera with f1.8 zoom lens. Single lens reflex viewing and focusing. Manual zoom lens. Does not have specific focal length range, but Super8Wiki lists the M7 as having a 12mm to 36mm focal length. Folding handle, tripod socket, shutter release socket, and diopter adjustment. Close focus is slightly less than 6 feet. Apparently single speed of 18 frames per second. Takes 3 AA batteries and one PX-13 mercury battery for the meter. Meter appears to work by dropping an arrow in the viewfinder if there is not enough light. Backlight - normal switch. A 1966 magazine advertisement on eBay indicates it was sold in 1966 with a suggested retail price under $160, which astonishingly equals about $1,000 in 2007 dollars. Body made of metal, but definitely a relatively unsophisticated consumer model. Made in USA. Apparently came in an all black model which I have and a model with one black side and one off white side. Purchased at an El Cajon, CA garage sale on March 31, 2007 for about $2. In fair cosmetic condition. Zooms and focuses, although the focus is a little rough. The meter battery compartment had a leaking 1.3 volt PX-13 battery. I cleaned out the compartment carefully and put in a new 1.5 volt PX625 battery. The meter appears to work. The AA battery compartment is clean and you can hear the motor running. I do not see the shutter moving or the gear which advances the film moving. Perhaps film needs to be in the camera.|
|Kodak Instamatic M9 (circa 1968-1970) (Large Image, Other Side) Super 8 cartridge loading Instamatic camera with f1.8, 5X manual or powered zoom lens, 9.5-45mm. Four film speeds of 12, 18, 24, and 32 frames per second. CdS through the lens exposure meter. It seems to have through the lens framing although I don't think it focuses through the lens. It has a distance scale on the lens that is visible in the viewfinder. The price according to a 1969 Life magazine ad was less than $200 (about $1,600 in 2022 dollars). I could not find much information about the camera online, although there are many M9 cameras on eBay. I could not find an instruction manual. This seems to be one of the higher end Kodak Instamatic cameras. As I write this in 2023, I assume I got this at a garage sale many years ago. The 1.5 volt AA batteries in the handle leaked badly. I'm working on cleaning it up but have not been successful yet. I believe it takes a 1.3 volt mercury battery for the exposure meter. These batteries are no longer available.||Kodak Instamatic M22 (Introduced 1969) (Large Image, Other Side) Super 8 cartridge loading Instamatic camera with fixed focus 14mm f2.7 lens, single speed, no light meter, electric motor powered by two AA 1.5 volt batteries in the pistol grip. A September 1969 Popular Photography Magazine ad states: "No need to focus. Only one exposure setting, and the illustrated guide on the pistol grip makes it a cinch. f/2.7 lens. Less than $30." That's about $244 in March 2023 dollars. It was the lowest priced Instamatic M series camera in the ad and the only one without an exposure meter. The other models were the M24 ($50), the M26 ($65), the M28 ($80) and the M30 ($100). The illustrated guide on the pistol grip has a sun f/16, a hazy sun f/11, a cloud f/8, many clouds f/5.6 and shade f/5.6. The manual is available at Olliger's Camera Collection. I don't recall where I got mine. It was many years ago. It is in fair cosmetic condition with some white stuff on the black covering, some scratches and some type of trim missing from the top. The battery compartment looks like it may have had some leakage. I got it to run a fraction of a second and then nothing! It has a K40 Kodachrome film cartridge in it. The major advantages of this camera compared to an earlier Brownie model is the simple film loading with the Super 8 film cartridge and the electrically powered motor. It is obviously meant to be an inexpensive and simple point and shoot camera with the user having to choose the aperture.|
|Kodak Ektasound 130 (1973-77) (Large Image.) The first camera to record image and sound on magnetically stripped Super 8 film. (Science and Society Picture Library.) Unfortunately, it is difficult to get film that will work in these cameras today. (http://ektasound.blogspot.com/.) The optics are not very sophisticated. It has a fixed focus and fixed focal length Kodak Extar 9mm f1.2 lens with a simple not through the lens viewfinder. It has a filter switch for tungsten or daylight lighting, a motor battery check, a run/lock switch, a button on the bottom rear to run the camera, a diopter adjustment for the eyepiece, a blue battery check light, an input for an external 9 volt D.C. connection, and an input for an external microphone. There are no other adjustments. It takes 6 AA 1.5 volt batteries for the motor and a 9 volt battery for the amplifier. It is a very simple, yet historic, camera. I purchased mine for $5 at a garage sale on September 17, 2011 on Mohawk Street in San Diego, CA. The AA batteries had corroded. I was able to clean up the contacts and get it running although it took me a long time to figure out the button on the bottom rear of the handle was the run button! I thought that button was to release the battery door! It looks like there is no built in microphone. Instead an external microphone is used. The camera is made by Eastman Kodak in Rochester, New York. While this was the first Super 8 sound camera, by 1976 there were several Super 8 sound movie cameras and projectors in the 1976-1977 Sears Camera Catalog by several different manufacturers. I think Kodak generally knew there was money to be made in introducing a camera with a new type of film and then selling that film. Whether the film was in a Kodak camera or not was of secondary importance. The Ektasound 130 does not appear in the 1976-1977 Sears Camera Catalog. It appears to have been replaced by the model Ektasound D 230 which also had a pre-focused 9mm, f1.2 lens, but which added a built-in microphone which extended from the handle out in front of the camera apparently to get closer to the subject sound and to reduce any sound of the camera motor. The Ektasound D 230 sold for $224.50 which has the same buying power as almost $900 in 2011. For $900 in 2011 you can get a digital single lens reflex still camera that also records HD video with stereo sound. You can also edit the still photos or videos on your computer and play them on your high definition flat panel LCD television. Even by the late 1980s video cameras had largely replaced consumer film movie cameras. While Kodak was a pioneer in digital photography, the move to digital photography significantly impacted Kodak financially. Eastman Kodak's stock prices over the past several decades are interesting. The data is from an interactive chart on Yahoo Financial. In October 1972, the year before this camera was introduced, Eastman Kodak stock was selling at almost $66 per share. It then took a large dip falling to about $19 per share in January 1978. By July 1987 it had risen back to about $68 per share. Its all-time high was about $80 per share in October 1996 and it was still at $75.6 per share in July 1999. On September 26, 2011 Kodak stock closed at $1.74 per share after it drew on its credit line. (See, e.g., Reuters, Kodak Shares Sink After It Draws on Credit Line, "Eastman Kodak Shares Got Crushed: What You Need to Know," The Motley Fool. But see "Buy Kodak Shares Now: Analyst," The Street (Kodak maintains many valuable digital image patent claims.)) In January 1962 it was selling for over $12 per share (I assume in 1962 dollars). Kodak was removed from the S&P 500 index in December 2010. It had been part of the Dow Jones Industrial Average from 1930 to 2004. ("S&P 500: Netflix In, Eastman Kodak Out," CNN Money, December 10, 2010.) While Eastman Kodak is no longer part of the S&P 500, Eastman Chemical, which was spun off from Eastman Kodak in 1994, is part of the S&P 500. (Eastman Chemical Company, Wikipedia.)|
|Kodak XL 10 (1972-75) (Large Image, Other Side, White Residue) A silent Super 8 cartridge movie camera produced from 1972-1975 according to filmkorn.org. It has a fixed focus 9mm f1.2 lens with non-reflex viewing and non-TTL automatic exposure. It has a single speed of 18 frames per second. It is powered by four 1.5 volt AA batteries. It is made in the U.S.A. A 1974 magazine ad for sale on eBay states prices for the XL cameras start at less than $120 or about $735 in April 2023 dollars. I assume the XL 10 was the least expensive in the XL series. That's a lot for a fixed focus, single speed, single focal length camera. My camera is in good cosmetic condition except it developed a white residue all over the dark brown covering. It came off well with Goo-Gone. The battery compartment is very clean. When I put batteries in, I hear a motor running that I can't shut off. The shutter is not moving. I don't know if the camera needs film for the shutter to run. I don't recall where I got the camera. I assume I got it at a garage sale many years ago.|
|Kodak XL 340 (1974-78) (Large Image) Part of the Kodak XL line of Super 8 silent cameras that a 1977 print ad states have "a unique binocular shape for an easy, steady grip." A 1974 print ad for XL cameras promoted "Movies without movie lights." "Kodak XL movie cameras have four special features that let up to six times more light reach the film than cameras without them. 1. An extra-fast f/1.2 Ektar lens. 2. An enlarged shutter opening. 3. An exposure control that doesn't block the light. 4. A viewfinder that doesn't steal the light. Just drop in a cartridge of Kodak Ektachrome 160 movie film and you're ready to take good movies without movie lights." I believe special features 3 and 4 refer the lack of through the lens viewing and metering. With higher end cameras of the era, you would actually expect the camera to have through the lens viewing and metering. A 1975 print ad at museumsvictoria.com.au features the lower end XL 320, the mid-level XL 340 and the high-end XL 360. The camera has a Kodak Ektar 9-21mm f1.2 2.3X manual zoom lens. It has a single speed of 18 frames per second. It takes four AA batteries. Scale focusing - i.e. you estimate the distance. Autoexposure. I couldn't find the price of the XL-340. Page 51 of the 1976-77 Sears Camera Catalog has the XL-320 priced at $99.50 and the Kodak XL 360R priced at $239.50. Adjusting for inflation, equivalent January 2023 prices would be about 5X higher. I assume I bought this at a garage or estate sale many years ago. I cannot get it to run. It is in good cosmetic condition although the black trim on the bottom had white residue. Most of it came off with cleaning, however.|
|Mansfield Holiday II (circa 1960) (Large Image, Side, Front) An 8mm, manual wind, movie camera that shot double 8 film in 25 foot rolls. A 25 foot roll of Kodachrome with processing was $3.69 on page 86 of the 1959-1960 Sears Camera Catalog, or about $37.50 adjusted for inflation as of November 2022. Double 8 film was actually 16mm wide double perforated film. You shot one side, then put the film back in the camera to shoot the other side as explained at Mansfield Holiday II 8mm Cine Camera - Crash Course!, an excellent 19 minute YouTube video by the Film Photography Project. Once processed, the film would be split down the middle to make a 50 foot roll of processed film perforated on one side. It was then ready to view. The camera had an uncoupled selenium exposure meter on the top, as well as a daylight exposure table on the film door. The three lens turret came with a 13mm f1.8 normal lens, a "wide angle" lens and a "telephoto" lens. All the lenses are fixed focus and the normal lens appears to be a single element. There is an additional element in the camera, however, which all the lenses share. The individual lenses do not have aperture settings. Rather, the apertures are on a rotating disk in the camera behind the lens. It had a fixed viewfinder with color coded markings for the three lens. It had built-in haze and Type A conversion filters. It has only one frame rate of 16 fps. The video above indicates that gives a shutter speed of 1/30 second. Overall, it is a very simple camera.
The Holiday II was made in Japan and distributed by Mansfield Industries, based in Chicago. Mansfield distributed still cameras, many under the name Mansfield Skylark, movie cameras, and other photographic accessories in the late 1950s through 1965. Mansfield also made some items in its Spring Grove, Minnesota facilities. Mansfield acquired Argus from 1962 to 1965 when Argus was reacquired by Sylvania. (Mansfield - Wikipedia) In the 2022 movie, The Fabelmans, the young filmmaker based on Steven Spielberg uses a Mansfield movie editor.
The 1959-1960 Sears Camera Catalog at page 7 lists the Holiday II for $49.95. (About $500 adjusted for inflation as of November 2022) It was the least expensive 3 lens turret movie camera in the catalog, although the single lens Kodak Brownie movie camera on page 6 was only $27.50. A 1961 magazine ad for sale on eBay had the Mansfield Holiday outfit for sale for $99.95. (Almost $1,000 adjusted for inflation as of November 2022) The outfit included the Holiday II camera, a Holiday Customatic 8mm projector, a beaded screen, E-Z dry splicer, two-lite bar and bulbs, reel and storage can, camera carrying case, "Secrets of Moviemaking" guide book, color film, and a carry-all gift carton.
As I write this in December 2022, I think I probably got this camera at a garage sale many years ago. I would not have paid much. It is in fair cosmetic condition with many scrapes. The meter does not work, but the camera winds and runs.
My camera came with a leather case and a Norwood Director Model C light meter, a selenium meter requiring no battery. The Model B, which is essentially the same except for the back name plate, was released in 1948. Sekonic of Japan acquired the right to manufacture the Director series in 1957. (Norwood Director - Camera-Wiki) According to a 1949 ad, the Norwood director was $32.03, or almost $400 in 2022 dollars. (See id.) The very similar Sekonic L-398A Studio Deluxe III Analog Light Meter is still sold today for $229. (Sekonic L-398A.) That's a pretty long life span for a photography technology! My Norwood meter still works after I discovered I had to take out the dark slide. Apparently they are well made although I have not checked its accuracy.
Consumer movie making technology has changed a lot since 1960. While on their face the prices for cameras and film in 1960 seem reasonable, adjusted for inflation the prices were quite high as seen above. Consider that the median household income in 1960 was only $5,600. (www.census.gov.) In 60+ years, technology has improved exponentially. My $140 smartphone purchased in 2019 ($16 in 1960 dollars) takes higher quality movies of practically unlimited length with sound. It is also a high quality still camera, a mobile phone, and a general purpose computer which much greater capabilities than a million dollar mainframe in the early 1960s. (See Computerhistory.org for two examples of computer prices in the early 1960s) I can hook the phone up to the a large screen, flat panel, high resolution LCD television to watch the movies. (A 32in LCD television at Costco was on sale on December 15, 2022 for $100. "Prices for televisions are 99.19% lower in 2022 versus 1950." Television Prices 1950-2022.) I can send movies over the Internet anywhere in the world in seconds. I can post them on YouTube for anyone to watch. I can easily edit the movies on the laptop computer. A lot has changed since 1960!
|Minolta Autopak-8 K11 (1966-1968) (Large Image) Dates from super8data.com. Super8 cartridge silent movie camera made in Japan. Single lens reflex f1.8 zoom lens, focal length 8.4mm to 50mm, close focus 4 ft (1.2m). There were also similar K5 and K7 models with shorter zoom lenses. Purchased on January 4, 2013 at an estate sale on Jackson Drive. The camera was apparently owned by Charles A. McLauglin, Ph.D. whose business cards indicate he did photography and scientific illustration. The house had many books and journals on zoology and hundreds of photographic slides of his travels throughout the world. This was the only camera for sale, however. The camera is in good cosmetic condition. It is powered by five 1.5 volt batteries that fit into the handle. The bottom of the handle unscrews to allow you to insert the batteries. The entire handle can also be removed. The batteries power the shutter, motor and electric zoom. The camera is not getting power. I very briefly ran it using a 9 volt battery hooked up to the terminals with the handle/battery pack removed. The batteries did not leak. When I took off the top plate of the battery pack I could get voltage showing on a multimeter. Once out of many tries I was able to get a voltage reading from the battery pack with the top plate on. With another battery pack or more patience I think it should work. In glancing at eBay I came across two K series cameras with a similar problem. I'm not sure whether there is a separate battery for the light meter. I did not find one.|
|Technicolor Instant Load Mark Ten Super Eight (1967) (Large Image, Other Side) According to Super8wiki.com, the futuristic looking Technicolor Mark Ten super eight camera was made in Japan by Minolta in 1967. It has a 12mm-36mm f1.8 zoom lens with through the lens focusing, viewing and automatic exposure control, and a single filming speed of 18 frames per second plus single frame. Specifications are at Super 8 Database. The instruction manual is available at mondofoto.com. The focus ring is toward the rear of the lens on the left side of the camera. There is a lever moving the zoom ring just ahead of the focus ring. Close focus is just under 5 feet. The filming button is at the back edge of the handle. The film cartridge is inserted through a door in the back of the camera. The camera is made primarily of metal and fairly heavy at about 44 ounces. It is powered by 4 AA 1.5 volt batteries. There is no separate battery for the exposure meter. It was easy to use. Pop in in film cartridge, turn the camera on, zoom, focus, shoot. Technicolor is a color motion picture process and related company. (Technicolor - Wikipedia.) While not primarily in the consumer camera business, looking on eBay several consumer still, movie and video cameras, as well as projectors, were marketed under the Technicolor name in the late 1960s through perhaps the early 1980s. The Technicolor name was familiar to consumers from major motion pictures. I likely purchased my camera at a garage sale many years ago. It is in fairly good cosmetic condition although some chrome around the lens is begining to flack off. It has four stickers on top that read: "Cartridge Movie Film Stamp. Good for one roll Super 8 Color Movie Film when included with regular remittance for film processing. Not transferable or redeemable for cash." I have left the stickers on. The camera runs and sounds fine. I have not film tested it.|
|Minolta Autopak-8 D6, Super8 silent movie camera from the early '70s, in good working and cosmetic condition, although I have not run film through it. Single lens reflex, f1.8 zoom lens, focal length 8.4mm to 50mm, close focus 4 ft (1.2m). Purchased in July 2004 on eBay for $.99 with about $14 for shipping. Shipping was delayed, however, and seller refunded all amounts.|
|Minolta XL-601 (1978-1980) (Large Image, Other Side) According to filmkorn.org, marketed in 1978 and produced from 1977-1980. (See also Super8wiki.) Manual at mondofoto.com with specifications at page 36. Super 8 Silent single lens reflex movie camera with 7.5-45mm (6X) f1.7 lens, 13 elements in 11 group with swing-in element enabling photomacrography. Through-the-lens (TTL) CdS meter system. Shutter speed of 1/29.5 seconds at fixed 18 frames per second and single frame. Powered by two 1.5 volt AA batteries. Close focus 1 meter, macro 10cm to 116cm. It has a built-in intervalometer. Its sister camera was the XL-401 which was the same camera but with a 4X 8.5-34mm lens. The 1978-79 Sears Camera Catalog at page 55 sold the XL-401 for $209.50, which equals about $925 dollars in February 2023 dollars. The XL-601 would have sold for somewhat more. I think I purchased mine at a local garage or estate sale. It comes with the original box and camera manual. It is in very good cosmetic condition and seems to work fine. Part of the built-in rubber lens hood broke off, however.|
|Polavision Camera. Polavision, introduced in 1978, was an entirely new process resulting in near instant movies. Film cartridges about 13cm x 7cm x 1.5 cm were used in the Polavision camera. These were not cheap. A 2.5 minute film cassette was $7.99 in the 1978-79 Sears Camera catalog. After filming you placed it in a special Polavision Player which developed and played the cassettes. Players were expensive at $379.50 in the 1978-79 Sears Camera Catalog, over $1,000 in today's dollars. While Polavision was an innovative development, it was short lived likely for several reasons. First, it was expensive. Second, the quality was relatively poor. (See The Land List). Third, the movies did not have sound. As indicated by the Canon 514 XL-S above, sound was becoming common at the time. Fourth, as demonstrated by the RCA Video Camera below, portable video cameras were right around the corner. Today you can buy a decent digital video camera for about $300 with 60 minute Mini DV tapes costing less than $5. You can edit the tape on your computer and view it on your television. My Polavision camera outfit was purchased on eBay on 10-19-05 for $6.50 plus $11.45 shipping and $1.30 insurance. It is in good cosmetic and working condition. It includes the outfit with accessories. The original price on the box was $199.95.|
|Polavision Viewer (Large Image) The 2.5 minute cassettes were viewed using the Polavision Viewer. As indicated above, the viewers were expensive at $379.50 in the 1978-79 Sears Camera Catalog, the same buying power as $1,266.73 in 2010. For that much money one could buy a digital video camera, an LCD projector and a desktop computer in 2010 with some careful buying. I haven't tried my viewer. I think it turns on when a cassette is inserted. I purchased the viewer and a camera as well as several other photographic items including a Minolta SRT 101 35mm single lens reflex camera and a Minolta QT16 subminiture camera for a total of $30 from an ad on Craigslist on 5-10-10 in the North Park area of San Diego (Robinson Avenue). My impression is that the viewers are relatively hard to come by. They are also heavy and would be expensive to ship on eBay. Television commercials are available on YouTube: 1978 commercial with water skiers, 1978 commercial with boys having pillow fight, Ed McMahon for Polavision from Polaroid (April 2, 1979). YouTube also has an interesting video entitled Polavision Super8 Film Transfer and Restoration showing how you can take the processed film out of the cassette and project it using a Super8 projector. It also shows transfer to digital media.|
|Revere 88 (circa 1940) (Large Image) Double 8mm movie camera. Date from Collecting Movie Cameras. This may be the introduction date since eBay has an ad for the Revere 88 and a projector from 1942. CINEMATOGRAPHICA lists it as 1946. While fairly old, these seem to be pretty common on eBay. A recent one sold for only $10 with the original box. Two are listed with the original box and manual for only $10. Its a small camera with dimensions of about 5" high, 2" wide and 3.25" deep with another .75" for the lens. It's metal body makes it heavy, however, with a mass of about 1.2 Kg. Wollensak-Revere 13mm f2.5 Velostigmat lens. It doesn't seem to be removable. It also seems to be fixed focus. There is a small aperture ring on the lens with f-stops from f2.5 to f16. In place of a light meter there is a label next to the lens stating: VERY DULL- F2.5, DULL- 3.5, CLOUDY- 4, HAZY- 5.6, SUNLIGHT- 8, BRIGHT- 11, BRILLANT- 16. There is a much more detailed "Exposure Guide" on the left side (door side) of the camera. Speed control of 8, 12, 16, 24 and 36 frames per second. Key wind. The shutter button is the one just above the winding key. Made in the U.S.A. by the Revere Camera Company, Chicago. Purchased for $5 at a La Mesa, CA estate sale on July 17, 2009. Well worn exterior, but in good operating condition. Additional Images: Lens, Open, Profile, Side.|
|Revere Magazine 16 Model 26 (1947-1956) (Large Image, Side A, Side B)) 16mm magazine loading movie camera. The dates of production are from Indiana University Bloomington. A May 1949 magazine advertisement being sold on eBay states: "The camera that films all three views from one position while sighting through a single Micromatic view-finder!" The camera featured: "instant magazine load, 3 lens revolving turret head, adjustable Micromatic view-finder, continuous run, single-frame exposure, rachet-winding key, [and] five speeds - including slow motion." The ad states a price of $165 with f2.7 coated lens. That has the equivalent buying power as over $2,400 as I write this in December 2022! The ad shows a camera with three lenses. The price, however, refers to only "f2.7 coated lens." The 1948 Montgomery Ward Photographic Catalog at pages 58 and 59 describes this camera, shows a picture of the non-turret version of this camera, and shows several other consumer 16mm movie cameras. My camera comes with a Bausch & Lomb 26mm f1.9 Animar lens and a Wollensak 17mm f2.7 Raptar lens. The Bausch & Lomb lens appear to be clear with both the focus and aperture working. It is in fair cosmetic condition and the rim is slightly dented. Close focus is two feet. On the other side of the aperture values it has Dull, Hazy and Bright settings for summer and winter in case you don't want to deal with f-stops. The focus turns freely on the Wollensak lens. The aperture was stuck. I applied some WD-40 and used a pliers. (Do not do this at home for any lens you are not willing to throw away. I am not a repair person.) This got the aperture freely moving. These two lenses are screw mount. The third space in the turret sticks out a little and does not have any threads. I assume it is for some sort of bayonet mount lens. The "Micromatic" view-finder built in on top of the camera has a wheel on top which you can turn to 17mm, 1 inch, 2 inch, 3 inch, or 4 inch to get the proper framing for different focal length lenses. It is not through the lens reflex viewing. The camera provides for film speeds of 12, 16, 24, 32 and 48 frames per second. The camera winds and runs. When at 12 fps it runs for about 35 seconds. At 48 fps it runs for less than 15 seconds. It's a hefty camera weighing it at 3.15 lbs. It is an entirely mechanical camera with no light meter. It has a scale on the side reading bright sun f8, weak hazy sun f5.6, open shade f4, overcast or deep shade f2.5. Above this scale is a footage meter which "registers the number of feet of exposed in the magazine" as stated at page 7 of Owner's Instruction Manual at www.vintagecameras.fr. Ollinger's Camera Collection has a Roundup of Revere and Wollensak Movie Cameras with excellent information and old ads about Revere and Wollensak cameras. As I write this in December 2022, I think I got this camera at a garage sale many years ago. It is in fair cosmetic condition with some corrosion. As described above it appears to work fine.|
|I have two undeveloped magazines of "Cine-Kodak Kodachrome Safety Color Film for Daylight." (Box, Magazine Front, Magazine Back) Each magazine holds 50 feet of double perforated film. I'm guessing I got these with the Revere 16 camera. 16mm Filmmaking takes one of these magazines apart and shows how they work. Each magazine stated: "Loaded with Kodak film - This magazine is the property of Kodak." The user would expose the film and then send the magazine back to Kodak in the original box. Kodak would develop the film and then send it back to the user. Kodak would then reload the magazine, box it and sell it to another customer. The metal magazine and all its parts were hence recycled. You can still get 16mm magazines from the Film Photography Project loaded with new unexposed film. You shoot the film and return it to them. They develop the film, digitally scan it and return it to you. At 16 fps you get about 2.5 minutes of filming. (Analog Resurgence - 30's Movie Camera and Film Photography Project.) It's not exactly cheap at $85 per magazine for color reversal film, although it's pretty cool that you can still use these cameras and 16mm film magazines. Coincidentally, the price in 1948 was just about the same! Kodachrome 16mm magazines sold for $6.35 at page 84 of the 1948 Montgomery Ward Photographic Catalog. Sounds like a reasonable cost, but adjusted for inflation, that equals about $80 in 2022 dollars! Of course, Kodachrome film is no longer used. Kodachrome film was originally introduced in 1935 and discontinued in 2009, with processing discontinued in 2010. (Kodachrome - Wikipedia) Kodachrome "did not contain . . . color dyes, unlike its rivals. Instead, Kodachrome had three different monochrome layers - to which the three primary colors were added with dye coupler during a complex chemical development." (www.digitalcamera.world) Due to the complex development, Kodachrome had to be developed by Kodak or licensed developers. (Kodachrome - Wikipedia) I live in the San Diego area and remember having to send Kodachrome slide film to Los Angeles for processing. By the way, "safety film" is film with a cellulose acetate base. Prior to safety film, unstable and highly flammable nitrate film was used. (Cellulose Acetate Film - Wikipedia)|
|Revere 40 (1952) 8mm magazine loading movie camera made in the USA. 13mm f2.5 interchangeable lens. Mine has an light amber color filter over it. Speeds 12, 16, 24, 32 and 48 frames per second. Price in Fall 1952 - Spring 1953 Sears Camera Catalog was $99.50 equal to about $820 in 2008 dollars. Purchased at a garage sale in the Del Cerro area of San Diego on 7-5-08 for $5. The seller was a dealer of World War II uniforms and memorabilia. My camera is in good cosmetic and operating condition from what I can tell.|
|Tower Automatic 8mm projector, purchased at a San Carlos/Del Cerro area of San Diego garage sale on 1-11-09 for $4. In near new condition except for minor scratch on cover when I dropped the cover at the garage sale! Believed to be from the early 1960s. It is for 8mm film only, not Super 8. Tower was the Sears brand for photographic equipment. Up until the 1980s, Sears had an extensive photographic department in stores and by mail order. The Tower brand sometimes included professional quality equipment such as Tower rangefinder cameras with a Leica mount. Some of the early Pentax SLRs were also sold under the Tower name, as were a number of Ricoh and Mamiya cameras. For example, the the Tower 32A is same as the Mamiya Prismat NP, the first Mamiya 35mm SLR marketed. By the 1970s it seems the Tower name stopped being used. For example, the Sears 1000 MXB made in the 1970s is a version of the Mamiya MSX 1000. The Tower name is no longer used, however.|
|Tower Varizoom, 8mm movie camera from about 1960.|
|Sears 8mm Automatic Movie Camera Model 9145 (Circa 1964) (Large Image, Other Side) Model number 3 N 9145C. Double 8 movie camera powered by two AA 1.5 volt batteries. Described in 1964 Sears Wishbook as "Sears Electric-eye, Power-dirve Camera." "No settings to make, no winding to do. Sensitive electric eye sets fast 1:1.8 lens; 2 batteries (incl.) drive the film. Built-in type-A filter to use indoor film outdoors. Takes all roll films, ASA 10-400. Gray metal body. From Japan." The price for the camera was $38.88 or about $370 in March 2023 dollars. It has a 13mm f1.8. The bottom dial on the side of the lens assembly sets the aperture to auto or manually from f1.8 to f16. Above that is a dial for the type-A filter. Above that is a dial to set the ASA. The two AA batteries fit in the battery compartment at the bottom of the camera. The battery for the meter fits into the top of the camera. I'm guessing it requires a 1.3 volt mercury battery. I don't recall where I got my camera. It is in good cosmetic condition. Unfortunately, the AA batteries leaked. After some work it turned on for a second. I cannot get it to run further.|
|Sekonic Micro-Eye DeLuxe 53SIR,(Large Image, Other Side and Grip) Made in Japan by Sekonic Co., Ltd. Sekonic is known primarily for their handheld light meters. Camera-Wiki - Sekonic states: "Sekonic also made 8mm movie cameras and projectors in the 1960s, some of which were also sold under other names like Hanimex, others under their own Sekonic and Elmatic brands." There are many listed for sale on eBay, although there isn't a lot of information on the Sekonic movie cameras. Kent Krugh has a fascinating x-ray image of the Sekonic Micro-Eye DeLuxe 53SIR. In addition to the Sekonic Micro-Eye DeLuxe 53SIR, there was also a Sekonic Micro-Eye Zoom 8 53-EE camera as well as a Micro Eye Special, No. F3. A Worthpoint listing referred to the seller receiving his Sekonic Micro-Eye Special 53F as a gift in 1965. The May 15, 1964 New Your Daily News has an ad for Peerless & Willoughby for a Sekonic Micro-Eye originally listed at $159.95, with a current value of $95 to $110 with a sales price now of $69.95. Science Museum Group refers to a 1964 Sekonic Dualmatic-Zoom cine camera with a S-Resonar Zoom lens F:11.5-25mm, f/1.8. Indiana University Bloomington discusses a "Sekonic Zoom 8 Simplomat," circa 1964. (See also A Table of 8mm Cameras listing six different Sekonic cameras.) The Micro-eye cameras have a CdS light meter. The meter takes a Mallory 640R battery according to the label in the battery compartment cap. This is also apparently called a RM-640. It was apparently a 1.4 volt mercury battery. (See generally www.photoethnography.com for a good discussion on vintage camera batteries.) The battery compartment on my camera is corroded but does not contain a battery. The corrosion has damaged the paint around the battery compartment cap. The camera has an "S-Resonar Zoom Lens Y" f1.8 with a zoom range of 11.5 to 32mm. The meter has a ring to match the DIN film sensitivity to the frames per second/shutter speed. Moving the ring moves an iris. The camera has an automatic and manual exposure setting. The motor is clock-wind. Focusing and the zoom are manually controlled. I could not locate an online manual. I did find an instruction manual for the similar Argus Electric Eye Zoom 8, Model 409. (See also Indiana University Bloomington - Argus Zoom Eight Model 409 - the Sekonic Micro-Eye DeLuxe 53SIR looks identical to the Argus Zoom Eight Model 409 except the Argus has a Selenium meter while the Sekonic has a CdS meter.) My camera winds and appears to work. It has film in it. I have not tested the meter. I acquired my camera years ago probably at a garage sale.|
|Yashica Super-40 Electronic (1968-71) (Large Image) Silent Super 8 camera with 4X zoom lens (9-36mm f1.8), manual through the lens focusing, and filming speeds of 12, 16 and 24 frames per second. It is powered by 4 AA 1.5 volt batteries. Complete specifications at Super8 Wiki and filmkorn.org. This YouTube Video, I believe in Arabic with English subtitles, describes the camera. I assume I got my camera at a garage sale or estate sale many years ago. My camera has issues. It is missing the switch on the door that opens and closes the door. Now the door just flops open. It is also missing the battery door and the battery compartment had corrosion. I have not tried to operate the camera. It came with the wired remote control and a boxed unexposed roll of Ektachrome 160 film priced at $7.68 at Fedco and a roll of Kodachrome 40 film priced at $5.87 at Fedco. The process before date is no longer readable.|
|Yashica Super YXL-1.1 (1973) (Large Image, Other Side) Features and specifications at www.filmkorn.org and super8wiki.com. Super YXL-1.1 Yashica Super8 is a one minute unnarrated YouTube video showing the camera. The Yashica Super YXL-1.1 is a Super 8 silent cartridge camera with a single focal length 13mm, f1.1 lens. The lens is not removable and is fixed focus. The camera has a single speed of 18 frames per second, a non-reflex viewfinder and a non-TTL (not through the lens) exposure meter. The aperture is apparently selected automatically based on the exposure meter reading. Apertures go down to f22 according to the posting on Yashica Forum. From what I can tell the user has no indication of the aperture. The camera takes two 1.5 volt AA batteries in the handle to run the motor. It also takes one 1.35 volt mercury battery in a slot inside the film compartment. My camera has an EXP13 battery in it. These are no longer available. My camera also has a Kodachrome 40 Type A cartridge in it. It is apparently fully exposed with the words exposed on the film in the film window. Whatever was filmed will very likely remain hidden forever since processing of Kodachrome film ceased in 2010. Kodachrome - Wikipedia. Processing was very complex and could only be done at authorized facilities. Kodachrome Super 8 silent film including processing was $4.29 in the 1976-77 Sears Camera Catalog. That's equal to about $22 in 2022 dollars. One 50 foot film cartridge provided about 3 minutes 20 seconds of filming. (Super 8 film - Wikipedia.) According to super8wiki.com the original price of the camera in 1973 was 67 British Pounds. The exchange rate in 1975 according to the graph at www.poundsterlinglive.com was at the high about 1 pound equals 2.4 U.S. dollars. The original selling price of the camera therefore may have been around 67 x 2.4 = $160.80. That's equal to about $900 in 2022 dollars.|
The camera would have been very easy to use. Put in the batteries. Pop in the film cartridge. Point the camera. Push down the shutter trigger. When the film stops, pop out the film cartridge, put it in a Kodak mailer, and get the film back in the mail. With the single focal length, fixed focus, single speed and automatic exposure there was nothing else to do. No zooming, no focusing, no setting the speed, and no selecting the aperture. Clearly, a point and shoot camera! My dad would have loved it! As I write this in January 2023, I assume I likely purchased this at a garage sale many years ago. My camera is in good cosmetic condition. It is missing the name plate in front. It had significant battery leakage. I had to unscrew the screw holding the battery door closed with a pliers. After considerable cleaning and filing contacts with an emory board the camera works! While I don't ever plan on using this camera, I still get a thrill out of getting it to work! I don't know if the meter works since I don't have a battery for it and have not tried any substitutes.
Filmkorn.org states the camera was made in Japan by Kohka, (Kohka Company Ltd, Tokyo, Japan, Kabushiki Kaisha Kohka). (See also this page at filmkorn.org.) Kohka was a Japanese camera maker active in the 1960s and 1970s. (sciencemuseumgroup.org.uk.) They sold movie cameras under their own name but also made this one for Yashica if the information at filmkorn.org is accurate. Yashica itself was a major camera manufacturer active from 1949 until 2005 when its then owner, Kyocera, ceased production of cameras. (Yashica - Wikipedia.) It is well known for its twin lens reflex cameras, its 35mm rangefinder cameras, and its 35mm single lens reflex cameras some made in conjunction with Contax. This museum has numerous examples of Yashica cameras in each of those categories. Yashica also made movie cameras. While it manufactured most of its cameras itself, its FX-3 single lens reflex camera as an example was made by Cosina to Yashica's specifications. Cosina also made cameras for several other manufacturers and distributors. (Cosina - Wikipedia.)
|Minolta Video Camera, Recorder and Tuner (Large Image.) Early to mid 1980s. Consists of Minolta Color Video Camera K-800S AF, Minolta Portable VHS Video Cassette Recorder V-770S, and Minolta Video Tuner T-770S. The camera, usually resting on your shoulder, connects to the portable video cassette recorder, which is contained in a very nice Lowe-Pro Video VCR Compact II case slung over your other shoulder. The portable VCR has a slot in the back for a battery, type BP-2. A battery was not included. It is a large "brick" type battery similar to, but not the same as, the battery in my Panasonic camcorder below. I remember seeing an arrangement like this once when I was in Salt Lake City in about 1983 and being amazed that normal people could now make video movies. The seller said he thought he purchased it in 1985 for $1,900. An eBay entry states a similar, although perhaps earlier and less sophisticated, camera model K500S was from 1982. A German site states the K500S model is from 1984, however. The only date on the documentation that came with the equipment was for a RCA battery which has a copyright date of 1983. The 1985 date for the K800S seems pretty accurate although shortly after that time all in one units took over. The $1,900 price equals $3,679 in 2007 dollars. I purchased a new Canon digital camcorder on clearance in the Spring of 2007 for $175. It's less than 5% the new price of the Minolta in constant dollars, fits in the palm of your hand, has much higher resolution, and can be easily edited on a computer. Quite a difference in only 22 years! My Minolta system was purchased at a garage sale at the annual Rolando area (south of University) garage sales on 8-4-07 for $5. It's in very good cosmetic condition. I have not yet tried to see if it works although the seller said he thought it would. It's a fantastic addition to the museum, and while the system is pretty obsolete, the Lowe-Pro case could actually make a pretty nice laptop case.|
Panasonic OmniMovie HQ, purchased new in 1989 for about $800 or $850 at Fedco, this uses standard size VHS and SuperVHS tapes. It has an autofocus, 8X zoom lens, high speed shutter and flying erase head. This was a large camcorder that you sat on your shoulder which added to stability but also made it difficult to carry around. It was used to capture many now precious movies of my sons while young. I'm now burning those movies onto DVD. (Video tape apparently degrades over time.) It is still in good working order when used with AC power. It seems to have problems charging batteries now, however. (My younger son used to be fasinated with it and once knocked it off of a table.)